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The summertime means more activities, more time in our vehicles and warmer temperatures. With rising temperatures, the chance of children dying from a hot car death also increases, but these deaths are all preventable. Hot car deaths deserve attention not only in the scorching summer months, but all year long, as temperatures can increase in a vehicle to dangerous levels in less than an hour — even when it doesn’t seem that hot outside.

While statistics show an overall decrease in the yearly average of children dying from hot car deaths, continued education and awareness is one of the key factors in prevention. Parents and caregivers all play a critical role in preventing these deaths and there are numerous resources available for further guidance.

Hot car safety statistics

  • In total, 910 children have died  from Pediatric Vehicular Heatstroke, from being left inside a hot vehicle, since 1998 through 2021 — all of which were preventable. (NoHeatStroke.org, NHS)
  • 53% of the deaths occurred when the caregiver forgot the child was inside the vehicle. (NHS)
  • Thursday and Friday are the days with the highest number of hot car deaths, correlating with the end of the work week. (NHS)
  • 26% of the deaths occurred when children had gained access and the caregivers were unaware the child was inside the vehicle. (NHS)
  • The majority of the pediatric deaths were children age two and under, representing 73% of all hot car deaths from 1998 to 2021. (NHS)

What you need to know about hot car deaths

When a child is sleeping peacefully in the backseat, it’s too easy to zone out — distracted by  the worries and priorities that fill up your day — and forget the child is there.

A study from the NHS shows that most pediatric heat stroke cases stem from a caregiver forgetting about the child. In cases where a child was forgotten, nearly half of those parents or caregivers had intended to drop a child at daycare or preschool. The NHTSA adds, “Thursdays and Fridays — the end of the workweek — have had the highest deaths.”

Causes of vehicular heat stroke

Rank Reason Percentage of PVH Accidents Number of Child Deaths
1. Forgotten by caregiver 52.6% 479
2. Gained access independently 25.8% 234
3. Knowingly left by caregiver 20.1% 182
4. Unknown 1.4% 13

Source: Noheatstroke.org

Many people just don’t realize how quickly a car can heat on a warm day. One four-year-old boy died in 2020 from heat stroke when it was only 78°F outside. In 2005, another perished when temperatures reached just 73°F.

How warm do cars get?

On a day where it is 73°F outside, it only takes 25 minutes for temperatures inside a vehicle to exceed 100°F. Weather.gov reports the majority of temperature increases also occur within the first 15 to 30 minutes of a vehicle being off and unattended, proving that it doesn’t take long at all to reach dangerous temperatures.

At its Auto Test Track in Connecticut, Consumer Reports conducted in-depth research using precision instruments to determine the exact effect of temperatures on enclosed vehicles. Findings include the following:

Month Temperature outside Temperature inside a car after one hour
June 61° F 105° F and higher
July 78° F Light-colored sedan: 104° F and higher
Dark-colored sedan: 109° F and higher

“Children should never be left unattended in a car for even a short period of time,” says Jennifer Stockburger, the Director of Operations at CR’s Auto Test Center. “Even when it’s not that hot outside, our test results show how quickly temperatures inside the car escalate, regardless of whether your car is light or dark.”

It’s not worth the risk, especially when a child is at a much higher risk of heatstroke than others.

Effects on young children

Little bodies are especially at risk from PVH because their bodies are more susceptible to heat than adults. The American Academy of Pediatrics says that a child’s body heats three to five times faster than that of an adult. Children have trouble regulating the temperature of their bodies, making it easier for them to dehydrate. A child reaches the internal threshold for heatstroke at a temperature of 104° F, and death is imminent when the body reaches 107° F.

Prevention first begins with education and awareness, which is what our guide aims to provide parents and caregivers with children of all ages.

What is a hot car death?

Hot car death is the more colloquial term for Pediatric Vehicular Heatstroke (PVH) and refers to the unintended fatality of a child under the age of 18 that perishes due to severe heat or heatstroke within an enclosed and contained vehicle.

The interior of a car, such as the dark upholstery or a leather-wrapped steering wheel, can attract heat and hold it, causing the temperature inside the vehicle to quickly rise. With no incoming cycle of fresh air to cool the interior, the temperatures exponentially become hotter and hotter, growing to dangerous levels until it proves fatal to those inside. Both pets and children are especially susceptible because they lack the ability to safely extricate themselves from these harmful situations.

Hot car death warning signs

Heatstroke doesn’t happen instantly. Although it can progress very rapidly depending on the temperature, there are still several warning signs to let you know that something is amiss.

There are hot car death warning signs to watch for:

  • A core body temperature of 104°F or higher
  • Skin feels hot and dry
  • Confusion
  • Agitation and irritability
  • Slurred speech
  • Delirium
  • Flushed skin
  • Rapid breathing
  • Racing heart rate
  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Seizures
  • Coma

If any of these signs are present, it is imperative to seek emergency medical attention immediately for life-saving aid.

Updated hot car death statistics

Hot car death statistics were down in 2021, which is about half of the fatalities in both 2018 and 2019. Fortunately, fewer children are falling victim to PVH, which could be due to a variety of reasons. Overall, there could be significantly less time spent in the car and thus, fewer child deaths from being left in cars, plus greater education and awareness efforts about the deadly consequences of children being left in the car.

The historical trend indicates an average of 39 children have lost their lives each year since 1998, accounting for more than 910 children total.

Studies from Jan Null, CCM, of San Jose State University’s Department of Meteorology and Climate Science, show that in more than half of these cases, the child was simply forgotten. We can’t expect our daily worries or distractions to diminish, but car manufacturers are making strides to help, and continued education efforts to raise awareness may save additional lives.

Hot car death statistics over time

Although data is only available starting in 1998, the numbers we do have show a noticeable incline followed by a sharp decline over the last ten years. Hot car deaths spiked in between 2016 and 2019 before sharply dropping in 2020 and 2021 to record lows.

Year Hot car deaths
2021 23
2020 24
2019 53
2018 53
2017 44
2016 39
2015 25
2014 31
2013 44
2012 34
2011 34
2010 51
2009 33
2008 43
2007 36
2006 30
2005 47
2004 39
2003 43
2002 31
2001 39
2000 36
1999 33
1998 40

These are sadly just a few of the many casualties the U.S. has seen from hot car deaths.

Risk factors

Though each case is different, there are some repeated risk factors that are commonly associated with pediatric vehicular heatstroke.

Child deaths from being left in cars

NHS provides an in-depth look at the 2021 cases it has studied.

2021 Child Vehicular Heatstroke Deaths

Date Location Temperature Gender Age
10/7/2021 Shreveport, LA 90° Boy 1 year
9/9/2021 Harris County, TX 96° Girl 1 year
9/7/2021 Orange County, FL 86° Girl 1 year
9/5/2021 Fayetteville, NC 89° Boy 17 months
9/2/2021 Blythewood, SC 82° Boy 20 months
9/2/2021 Blythewood, SC 82° Boy 20 months
8/24/2021 Mount Wolf, PA 87° Boy 4 years
8/22/2021 Holly Pond, AL 87° Boy 3 years
8/20/2021 Baton Rouge, LA 91° Girl 1 year
8/10/2021 Maple City, KS 96° Boy 2 years
8/10/2021 Springfield, VA 96° Boy 5 years
8/09/2021 Hibbing, MN 85° Boy 3 years
8/07/2021 Mesa, AZ 105° Boy 7 months
7/21/2021 American Fork, UT 94° Boy 11 years
7/16/2021 Tyler, TX 86° Boy 3 years
7/16/2021 Homestead, FL 88° Girl 2 years
6/30/2021 Spartanburg, SC 81° Boy 3 years
6/24/2021 Gaston County, NC 93° Girl 2 years
6/14/2021 New Iberia, LA 82° Boy 2 years
6/13/2021 St. Marys, OH 86° Girl 1 year
6/09/2021 Pace, FL 86° Boy 9 months
6/03/2021 Visalia, CA 102° Girl 3 years
04/25/2021 Iredell County, NC 70° Girl 5 months

Age

Hot car deaths can happen to children of any age, but the victims tend to be very young. PVH happens most frequently to children 14 years old and younger, but the majority of all child deaths since 1998 involve children under the age of two.

Location

Child hot car deaths can happen anywhere; every state has had at least one child fatality attributed to pediatric vehicular heatstroke, but some areas are historically worse than others based on geographical considerations.

A look at 2021’s cases shows a concentration in certain areas. Texas and Florida accounted for nearly a quarter of PVH cases, showing that while the risk is everywhere, the South faces a higher risk with warmer year-round temperatures.

Temperature

Most reported cases indicate temperatures exceeded 90℉, which can be especially fatal because the higher the temperature, the faster the heat rises in the car. On a cooler day, a child has a better chance of getting help before it’s too late. However, research has shown that even temperatures in the low 70s can still pose fatal risk.

Lifestyle

In 2020, an increased risk began emerging with the rise of parents working from home. The risk of children gaining access to unlocked vehicles and becoming trapped, especially as they become increasingly bored around the home, is much greater with the stay-at-home lifestyle and the numbers are similar for 2021.

Common dangerous misconceptions

Common misconceptions regularly contribute to pediatric deaths because they are believed to prevent PVH when they can be ineffective at preventing harm, exacerbate the problem or even cause the situation to be worse.

Open windows

Many parents may believe that an open or cracked window is enough to provide ventilation, but depending on the temperature outside, it may not be enough to mitigate stifling heat.

“Partially opened windows do allow some heat to escape,” says the Senior Director of Auto Testing at Consumer Reports Jake Fisher, “but as long as the heat source (the sun) continues to beat down and heat up the inside car elements, the temperature can stay dangerously high.”

Shade

In its studies, Consumer Reports is also careful to address the issue of shade. Some parents and caregivers may park their car in a shaded area and think that it will be cool enough, but that’s not really the case.

“Test results help dispel the myth that hot-car deaths or heat stroke happen only on blisteringly hot days in the dead of summer,” it writes.

Researchers at Arizona State University and the University of California at San Diego School of Medicine also found similar results in their testing. Identical vehicles were placed in the shade and sun, and it found that even a vehicle in the shade is at severe risk. Based on their data, they concluded that even in a shaded area, a two-year-old’s core body temperature could reach 104° F in less than two hours.

Color of car

An interesting revelation from Consumer Reports is that the color of your car could have little to do with hot car deaths. In its testing, Consumer Reports did not find any significant proof to show that the color of the vehicle was directly related to the temperature inside the vehicle.

How common is it to leave a kid in a hot car?

As Consumer Reports indicates, about 38 children die in a hot car annually. However, it is more common for this to occur in specific states.

In southern areas like Florida and Texas, consistently warmer temperatures can present a year-round risk. Northern states, on the other hand, only experience a few months of warm weather, allowing far less opportunity for child hot car deaths. In fact, Texas and Florida account for one-quarter of all PVH cases from 1998 to 2021.

Pediatric vehicular heatstroke doesn’t just happen in the U.S., either. Several other parts of the country have also experienced child deaths attributed to hot cars, with countries like Australia and Israel making international headlines.

Hot car death cases

It’s hard to understand the exact impact of each loss until you put a face and a name to these numbers. These are just a few of the many children who have lost their lives to unintentional hot car death.

  • March 2007: Bryce Balfour was just nine months old when he perished from heatstroke inside a vehicle on a 66 ° F day in Charlottesville, Virginia.
  • May 2017: In Caldwell, Idaho, Kyrae Vineyard was just five months old when the infant perished after four hours inside a car on a 76° F day.
  • July 2019: In New York, 12-month-old twins Luna and Phoenix Rodriguez died after their father, social worker Jose Rodriguez, forgot them in the backseat.
  • August 2019: 6-month-old Jovany Morales was left in a Knoxville vehicle on a day when temperatures topped 90 degrees.
  • September 2019: 2-year-old June Love Augusto was left in a running car with the heat on full-blast and was found with burns on her body and an internal temperature of 107.5° F.
  • August 2020: In Birmingham, Alabama, two brothers, Daniel Garcia, 3, and Ivan Salazar Jr, 1, died from heatstroke after climbing into a hot vehicle and becoming trapped inside.
  • September 2020: A newborn was left in a vehicle for hours on a 91°F day in Panama City, Florida before succumbing to heatstroke.
  • October 2020: Sayah Deal, a 21-month-old girl, died after being locked in a vehicle, and the caregiver refused to break the window, concerned over the cost of repair.
  • August 2021: A seven-month old boy died after being left in a vehicle for over two hours with temperatures outside of 105°F. The baby was discovered by the mother after she had been shopping during this time.
  • September 2021: Twin 20-month-old brothers Bryson and Braden McDaniel were left in a vehicle for nine and a half hours in the parking lot of their daycare and were found unresponsive by one of the parents.

The consequences of hot car deaths

For most parents, the loss doesn’t stop with the death of their child. Legal repercussions can extend far into the family’s life.

KidsandCars.org analyzed nearly 500 cases where the parent or caregiver had accidentally forgotten a child, resulting in a hot car death. They found that these cases were treated dramatically differently within the U.S. legal system. Within the 500 cases, it was discovered that:

  • 43% – no charges were filed
  • 32% – caregiver was charged and convicted
  • 11% – criminal charge resulted in no conviction
  • 14% – cases were still pending or unknown

The study notes that a court’s decision to prosecute and convict a hot car death depends on several different factors that may be weighted differently depending on where the case is being tried and the exact circumstances of the case.

There must be sufficient proof to press charges and take the case to trial, and prosecutors may approach the case in different ways. Some prosecutors may be more lenient than others, depending on the circumstances.

Courts also call into consideration the science of it all, as well, looking to medical documents and scientific studies to determine just how much guilt should be placed on the parent or caregiver. Public opinion and outcry can also influence a decision of whether to prosecute and convict. These are the reasons why some parents end up facing felony or misdemeanor charges while others walk away with no legal repercussions.

“All in all, there is no rhyme or reason to how these cases are treated,” concludes Amber Rollins, Director of KidsandCars.org.

Beyond legal implications, parents may see repercussions with car insurance as well, depending on the state and how carriers handle various criminal charges that could be levied.

How to prevent hot car deaths

Innovation

Several car manufacturers are stepping up in response to child deaths in hot vehicles, working to deliver new solutions to curb the number of fatalities each year. These car manufacturers are leveraging the advanced technologies designed to save lives and give parents a helping hand.

  • GM: Since 2017, GM models have featured the Rear Seat Reminder. This lets the driver know when a rear door is opened after the vehicle is turned on.
  • Nissan: Similar to the Rear Seat Reminder, Nissan offers its Rear Door Alert that detects when a rear door is opened before a trip and not opened again when the trip is completed. This is a feature that comes standard on the 2018 Nissan Pathfinder, and the company plans to include it on all four-door vehicles by 2022.
  • Kia and Hyundai: With its Rear Occupant Alert, Hyundai integrates motion sensors to ensure all passengers make it safely out of the car. Drivers automatically get a warning to check the rear seats when they turn off the engine. Even if that warning is ignored and the car is locked, it will still continue to actively detect motion in the back seat of the vehicle for 24 hours after the trip is completed. If motion is detected, the car will honk its horn for 25 seconds to attract attention and either email or text owners with a Blue Link subscription.
  • Toyota: The 2020 Highlander features a rear seat reminder that will send the driver visual and audible reminders when the rear door is opened again after the conclusion of a trip.

Legislation

The 2021 Infrastructure Bill included legislation surrounding hot car deaths. The mandate, as part of the Child Safety section of the bill, will require new vehicles to be equipped with child alert systems reminding drivers there is a child in the backseat. While this is a step in the right direction, critics of the measure state there is even more to be done surrounding awareness and prevention.

Keeping kids out of hot cars

As a parent or caregiver, you are in the best position to keep your child safe from pediatric vehicular heatstroke. Here are a few tips to help you keep a watchful eye over your children.

  • Teach them that cars are not a toy. Motor vehicles can represent a source of novelty for children who see them as gateways to fun and adventure. It’s imperative that you teach your children that the car is not a safe place to play alone because they can accidentally get trapped or hurt without anyone knowing.
  • Put the keys away. Be sure to store your keys in a height-appropriate place that is safe from your child’s grasp. Be proactive and keep the keys out of sight and out of reach to ensure children cannot easily access them.
  • Always check the pool and then your vehicle. Pools and cars are two of the greatest risks to children in a home, so if you cannot find your child suddenly, those are two places to check immediately. Check vehicle trunks as well, as that may be a quick point of access if a trunk is left open unintentionally.
  • Don’t leave kids in the car, even for a minute. It’s tempting for a busy parent to leave the kids in the car during a quick errand. However, leaving your child alone in a vehicle is never safe, regardless of whether the car is running, a window is cracked, the spot is shaded or even if it doesn’t seem that hot outside.

Hot car safety laws state by state

Legislature varies from state to state, showing that we still have a ways to go when it comes to awareness and prevention of pediatric vehicular heatstroke.

Hot car safety: what you can do

Awareness is the first step in preventing child deaths in hot cars.

The hardest issue to fight is that while this is typically an unintentional crime, its also one that has devastating consequences. Understanding how quickly a seemingly harmless situation can turn deadly can help with driver awareness.

As technology continues to improve and car manufacturers deliver new life-saving innovations, this may improve things, but ultimately it is the responsibility of every driver and members of the community to be attentive and notice opportunities of risk or harm.

What to do if you see a child in a hot car

Many states have introduced Good Samaritan laws, which allow bypassers to intervene should they witness a child trapped in a hot car. The rules vary for adults, children and pets left unattended depending on where you live, but many states have passed legislation or plan on introducing these protections to the general public.

If you see a child that is alone in a hot vehicle, there are a few things you can do to ensure that child’s safety until a parent or caregiver can be located.

  1. Ensure the child is awake and responsive.
  2. Attempt to find the parents by enlisting the help of a security guard or PA system.
  3. Attempt to gain access to the vehicle. This may mean breaking a window, but a sheet of glass can always be fixed later and isn’t worth the cost of a child’s life.

If, at any time, the child appears to be in distress, call 911 immediately. You could make all the difference in a child’s life.

Community resources

What you can do How it helps
Take a free online class Educate yourself and your community on the dangers of vehicular heatstroke. Available in English and Spanish from the National Safety Council.
Print out safety cards Place these reminders in your office, in your car and near the front door of your home so you never forget to check the car.
Sign up for a newsletter Safe Kids Worldwide, KidsAndCars.org, Jan Null (noheatstroke.org) and the National Safety Council work together to provide free Heatstroke Prevention Newsletters that you can receive.
Look up NHTSA contacts for your area The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration provides each state with NHTSA training contacts for child passenger safety.
Review tips for traveling with children. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides key tips all parents should know before they hit the road with their kids this summer.

Additional resources: