Cash-out refinance: How it works and when to do it
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Paying down your mortgage helps build equity in your home, but you don’t have to wait until you completely repay it, or sell the property, to access that equity. Instead, you can convert the equity you have into cash, and continue paying off your mortgage, with cash-out refinancing.
- Cash-out refinancing allows you to turn equity into cash through refinancing your mortgage.
- While you can't cash out all of your equity, the process gives you access to potentially a large sum without needing to sell your home.
- The terms of your refinanced mortgage might significantly differ from your original loan, including a new rate or longer or shorter loan term.
What is a cash-out refinance?
Cash-out refinancing replaces your current home mortgage with another, bigger mortgage, allowing you to access the difference between the two loans (your current one and the new one) in cash. The cash amount is based on the value of the equity you’ve built up in your home. The money can go toward virtually any purpose, such as home remodeling, consolidating high-interest debt or other financial needs.
Cash-out refinancing is beneficial if you can reduce the interest rate on your primary mortgage and make good use of the funds you take out.— Greg McBride, Bankrate Chief Financial Analyst
How much cash can you get with a cash-out refinance?
While lenders typically allow homeowners to borrow up to 80 percent of the home’s value, the threshold can vary depending on your credit score and type of mortgage, as well as the type of property attached to the loan (for example, a single-family, duplex or three- or four-unit property).
Lenders who offer loans insured by the Federal Housing Administration, or FHA, sometimes offer an FHA cash-out refinance that allows you to borrow as much as 85 percent of the value of your home. Cash-out refinance loans guaranteed by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) are available for up to 100 percent of the home’s value.
How does a cash-out refinance work?
The process for a cash-out refinance is similar to that of a regular refinance (a rate-and-term refinance), in which you simply replace your existing loan with a new one, usually at a lower interest rate or for a shorter loan term, or both.
With a cash-out refinance, however, you also withdraw a portion of your home’s equity in a lump sum. The lender adds the withdrawn amount, plus the outstanding balance on your original mortgage, and issues the new loan balance.
Lenders generally require you to maintain at least 20 percent equity in your home (though there are exceptions) after a cash-out refinance.
To do a cash-out refinance, you’ll also need to pay closing costs such as an appraisal fee. Unless you finance these costs with the new loan, subtract these from the final amount of cash you end up with.
Cash-out refinance example
Say the remaining balance on your current mortgage is $100,000, and your home is currently worth $300,000. In this case, you’d have $200,000 in home equity.
Let’s assume that refinancing your mortgage and cashing out means you can get a lower interest rate and equity funds to renovate your kitchen and bathrooms. To be eligible for a cash-out, you’d need to maintain at least $60,000 in equity (20 percent of $300,000), leaving you up to $140,000 to cash out if you choose.
Say your kitchen and bathroom reno budget is $120,000. You decide to refinance the remaining $100,000 on the original mortgage and take out $130,000 in cash, for a new loan amount of $230,000. Your lender charges 1 percent of that amount in closing costs, or $2,300. All told, you’ll take home $127,700 in equity funds.
Cash-out refinance requirements
Just as you did with your original mortgage, you’ll need to meet qualifying criteria to be eligible for a cash-out refinance. These requirements include:
- Credit score: The majority of cash-out refinance lenders require a minimum score of 620.
- Debt-to-income (DTI) ratio: The DTI ratio compares your debt payments against your monthly gross income. For a cash-out refinance, many lenders set a ratio limit of 43 percent on your new loan.
- Equity: You’ll need to maintain 20 percent equity in your home. Some lenders might allow you to borrow more, but keep in mind, some equity cushion isn’t a bad thing: You don’t want to end up underwater if the market changes and your home loses value.
How to prepare for a cash-out refinance
1. Determine the lender’s minimum requirements
As you explore your options, take note of each lender’s cash-out requirements. Most require a credit score of at least 620, a DTI ratio below 43 percent and at least 20 percent equity in your home.
2. Determine the amount of cash you need
If you’re considering a cash-out refinance, you’re likely in need of funds for a specific purpose. If you aren’t sure what that is, it can be helpful to nail that down so you borrow only as much as you need.
For instance, if you plan to use the cash to consolidate debt, have a firm idea of what you owe. If the cash is to be used for renovations, consult with a few contractors to get estimates for both labor and materials ahead of time.
3. Prepare your cash out-refinancing application
Once you’ve shopped around for a few lenders to ensure you get the best rate and terms, prepare all of the financial information related to your income, assets and debt for the application. Keep in mind you might need to submit additional documentation as the lender evaluates your application.
Pros and cons of cash-out refinancing
Pros of cash-out refinance
- You can lower your interest rate: This is the most common reason most borrowers refinance, and it makes sense for cash-out refinancing as well. Obviously, you want to pay as little interest as possible when taking on a larger loan.
- Your cost to borrow could be lower: Cash-out refinancing is often a less expensive form of financing because mortgage refinance rates are typically lower than rates on personal loans (like a home improvement loan) or credit cards. Even with closing costs, this can be especially advantageous when you need a significant amount of money.
- You can improve your credit: If you do a cash-out refinance and use the funds to pay off debt, you could see a boost to your credit score if your credit utilization ratio drops. Credit utilization, or how much you’re borrowing compared to what’s available to you, is a critical factor in your score.
- You can take advantage of tax deductions: If you plan to use the funds for home improvements and the project meets IRS eligibility requirements, you could take advantage of the interest deduction at tax time.
Cons of cash-out refinance
- Your interest rate might go up: A general rule of thumb is to refinance to improve your financial situation and get a lower rate. If cash-out refinancing increases your rate, it’s probably not a smart move.
- You might need to pay PMI: Some lenders let you withdraw up to 90 percent of your home’s equity, but doing so might mean paying for private mortgage insurance, or PMI, until you’re back below the 80 percent equity threshold. That can add to your overall borrowing costs.
- You could be making payments for decades: If you’re using a cash-out refinance to consolidate debt, make sure you’re not prolonging debt repayment over decades when you could have paid it off much sooner and at a lower total cost otherwise. “Keep in mind that the repayment on whatever cash you take out is being spread over 30 years, so paying off higher-cost credit card debt with a cash-out refinance may not yield the savings you’re thinking,” says Greg McBride, chief financial analyst for Bankrate. “Using the cash out for home improvements is a more prudent use.”
- You have a greater risk of losing your home: No matter how you use a cash-out refinance, failing to repay the loan means you could wind up losing it to foreclosure. Don’t take out more cash than you absolutely need, and ensure you’re using it for a purpose that will ultimately improve your finances instead of worsening your situation.
- You might be tempted to use your home as a piggy bank: Tapping your home’s equity to pay for things like vacations indicates a lack of discipline with your spending. If you’re struggling with getting your debt or spending habits under control, consider seeking help through a nonprofit credit counseling agency.
Is a cash-out refinance right for you?
Mortgage rates are on the rise. Still, the collateral involved in a cash-out refinance — your home — means that lenders take on relatively little risk and can afford to keep refinance rates somewhat affordable. That means that cash out refinancing is one of the cheapest ways to pay for large expenses. Most homeowners use the proceeds for the following reasons:
- Home improvement projects: Homeowners who use the funds from a cash-out refinance for home improvements can deduct the mortgage interest from their taxes if these projects substantially increase the home’s value.
- Investment purposes: Cash-out refinances offer homeowners access to capital to help build their retirement savings or purchase an investment property.
- High-interest debt consolidation: Refinance rates tend to be lower compared to other forms of debt like credit cards. The proceeds from a cash-out refinance allow you to pay these debts off and pay the loan back with one, lower-cost monthly payment instead.
- Child’s college education: Education is expensive, so tapping into home equity to pay for college can make sense if the refinance rate is lower than the rate for a student loan.
Cash-out refinance FAQ
The closing costs on a cash-out refinance (and any type of refinance) are almost always less than the closing costs on a home purchase. For a cash-out refinance, the lender charges an appraisal fee, and might charge an origination fee, often a percentage of the amount you’re borrowing. With a cash-out, you’re getting a larger loan, so the origination fee reflects that.
A cash-out refinance might be eligible for mortgage interest tax deductions so long as you’re using the money to improve your property. Some acceptable home improvement projects might include:
- Adding a swimming pool or hot tub to your backyard
- Constructing a new bedroom or bathroom
- Erecting a fence around your home
- Enhancing your roof to make it more effective against the elements
- Replacing windows with storm windows
- Setting up a central air conditioning or heating system
- Installing a home security system
In general, the improvements should add value to your home or make it more accessible. Check with a tax professional to see whether your project is eligible.
Both a cash-out refinance and a home equity loan allow borrowers to tap their home’s equity, but there are some major differences. As noted, cash-out refinancing involves taking out a new loan for a higher amount, paying off the existing one and obtaining the difference in cash. A home equity loan, in contrast, is a second mortgage — it doesn’t replace your first mortgage — and can sometimes have a higher interest rate compared to a cash-out refinance.
In addition to a home equity loan, consider these other options:
- HELOC: A home equity line of credit, or HELOC, allows you to borrow money when you need to with a revolving line of credit, similar to a credit card. This can be useful if you need the money over a few years for a renovation project spread out over time. HELOC interest rates are variable and change with the prime rate.
- Personal loan: A personal loan is a shorter-term loan that provides funds for virtually any purpose. Personal loan interest rates vary widely and can depend on your credit, but the money borrowed is typically repaid with a monthly payment, like a mortgage.
- Reverse mortgage: A reverse mortgage allows homeowners aged 62 and up to withdraw cash from their homes, and the balance does not have to be repaid as long as the borrower lives in and maintains the home and pays their property taxes and homeowners insurance.
Yes, in most cases. The mortgage lender needs to know what your home is worth in order to calculate how much equity you have and make you an offer.
How will my monthly mortgage payment change after refinancing?Your payment could go up or down depending on a few factors. If you’re able to secure a lower interest rate than the one you had on your original mortgage, you might still end up paying more, because you’re taking on a bigger loan amount by cashing out. Likewise, if you’ve already paid off a significant part of your mortgage, your new balance might be lower than your previous mortgage balance and result in a payment decrease.