The Bankrate promise
At Bankrate we strive to help you make smarter financial decisions. While we adhere to strict , this post may contain references to products from our partners. Here's an explanation for .
- You can negotiate your debts with your creditors directly or can hire a debt settlement company to do the negotiating for you.
- Settling your debt is inherently risky and shouldn’t be a first resort option. Consider consolidating your debts prior to looking into settlement.
- Understand your rights as a consumer before negotiating your debts to avoid getting scammed or taken advantage of.
If you have considerable high-interest debt and a lower credit score, it can make the repayment process seem nearly impossible. If consolidating your debt hasn’t worked in the past, then you may need to turn to debt settlement.
Debt settlement isn’t ideal for everyone and should always be a last resort option. However, for some, learning how to negotiate your debt settlement could be what it takes to get back on the right financial footing.
Steps to negotiate a debt settlement
Negotiating to reduce your debt in a settlement agreement can help alleviate some of your financial burden and help you avoid bankruptcy. When you pursue a debt settlement, you negotiate with your creditors to reduce the total amount you owe.
Here are some things to consider before you pursue a debt settlement:
- How much can I afford to pay?
- Am I willing to stop making payments (and watch my credit score take a hit) so I can save up for a lump sum?
- Should I negotiate myself or hire a debt settlement company?
Let’s say you’ve decided to go ahead and negotiate your debts on your own. Knowledge is power and the more you know about the process, the more likely you are to end up with a favorable settlement.
1. Understand your debt
Before you make any calls to your creditors, you’ll want to know exactly how much debt you owe and who the creditors are. Go into the process understanding every aspect of your financial situation, down to the penny.
While your credit report can be a good place to start, keep in mind that it doesn’t house all of your debts. As of April 2023, any medical debts with an initial balance under $500 won’t be included on any U.S. credit reports. Plus, older debt that’s past the seven to 10 year deadline could still be reported to collections.
If you can’t seem to track down an older debt, contact the creditor or look through older bills. Keep in mind that most states have a statute of limitations that dictates how long a debt collector can pursue you for overdue debt. If you take any action on debt that’s passed the statute of limitations, you’re resetting the clock on that balance.
For the most part, you’ll want to be as organized as possible to establish the best course of action when you pick up the phone and call your creditors.
2. Establish your terms
Before calling, take a look at your budget and savings to determine if you can make a lump-sum payment up front. Once you have a plan laid out, you can then make your offer and establish your potential terms.
Always make an offer that is less than the full amount you can afford. This leaves room for negotiation. It may help to write down the maximum payment you’re willing to make, and keep it in front of you during negotiations. Be careful of making promises you can’t keep or offering to pay more money than you can afford. You don’t want to default on your settlement agreement or stretch your budget too thin.
Depending on how much you owe, it may take months or even years to save up enough to make your lump-sum payment. If possible, keep making at least the minimum payments to avoid accruing more late fees and interest charges. While debt settlement agencies often require you to stop making payments to your creditors, if you negotiate for yourself you may be able to continue making the minimum payment.
If your creditor won’t accept your settlement offer, they may accept a payment plan or a few lump-sum installments. Spend some time beforehand thinking of a payment plan that would work for you in the event this comes up.
Also, remember to ask your creditor to report your debt to the three credit bureaus—Equifax, Experian and TransUnion—as “paid in full” instead of “settled” or “paid as agreed.” This will avoid a red flag on your credit report and may help you improve your credit score faster.
3. Call your creditors
Now it’s on to the hardest aspect of debt settlement: calling your creditors with a debt settlement offer.
If you’re already behind on your payments, your creditors will be more likely to listen to your offer. In theory, if you’re already behind, you might stop paying altogether, and they’d probably rather collect a portion of your outstanding debt than none at all.
If your creditor (or a debt collector) has been calling you, start the negotiation by picking up the phone when it rings. Make sure you’re in a place where you can speak without distractions and have the information you need on-hand. They will likely ask for payment in full, but be ready with your counter-offer for a lesser amount. If they don’t accept the offer, wait. It could take multiple phone calls to reach an agreement.
If your creditor accepts your settlement offer, you might be pressured to provide your bank account information immediately. You do not have to share this information. Say you’ll send a letter detailing the agreement and make the payment by the agreed-upon date.
4. Complete the deal in writing
Once you’ve reached a debt settlement agreement, send a letter to your creditor or the debt collection agency detailing the terms of the agreement. The letter should detail the settlement amount and add that the creditor agreed to accept the amount as payment in full for the debt. This is important to improve your credit score faster.
Send the letter via mail and request a return receipt, so you know your creditor received it. As always make a copy for your records to ensure you have a paper trail.
5. Make your payment
Follow through on the terms of the debt settlement and make your payment by the agreed-upon date. Make sure you understand exactly how to deliver the funds to your creditor well before the due date to avoid any issues. It’s advisable to mail the payment by check or money order or call to process a direct debit from your bank account.
Don’t send a postdated check or provide bank account information. While it is illegal for debt collectors to garnish your wages or deduct money from your bank account without permission, if they have your bank account information, unscrupulous debt collectors might do exactly that and take more than you agreed.
6. Follow up with the credit bureaus
Whatever the terms of your agreement, after you’ve made your payment you should obtain a free copy of your credit reports from AnnualCreditReport.com to make sure your creditor reported your account as agreed. If there is an error on your report, you’ll need to send a letter to the credit bureaus detailing the mistake and ask to have it fixed.
Hiring a debt settlement company
If the process of settling debt with multiple creditors or debt collection agencies sounds overwhelming, you may consider hiring a debt settlement company to do the work for you.
Some debt settlement firms may be able to negotiate a better deal than you could by yourself, thanks to their relationships with major debt collection agencies and creditors. Often, consumers who use a debt settlement agency save as much as they would have on their own, even after paying fees to the agency.
If you use a debt settlement firm, you’ll stop paying your creditors and make monthly payments to the agency instead. When your escrow account has enough money in it for a settlement agreement (plus the fees owed to the agency), the debt settlement firm will call collectors on your behalf to arrange payment.
While you can negotiate a settlement with a creditor at any time, debt settlement agencies require your accounts to go delinquent for 90 days — and sometimes more — before they will begin negotiating.
Negotiating debt on your own isn’t easy. Depending on your situation and the amount of debt you owe, a debt settlement firm could help you save money and get out of debt faster. However, debt settlement is a largely unregulated industry. Many debt settlement firms are not honest; some are outright scams. Read online reviews and check the Better Business Bureau listings before choosing a debt settlement company.
Is debt settlement right for me?
If you’ve been making the minimum payments for your credit cards on time, and your credit score falls in the good to excellent range, you may explore debt consolidation options, instead. You can use a personal loan, home equity loan, or a credit card with a zero percent introductory APR on balance transfers to pay off your debt.
If you feel that learning some financial skills and sticking to a budget may be enough to help you get out of debt, consider a credit counseling service. A not-for-profit credit counselor can help you establish a debt management plan, which is a specific form of debt consolidation based on your unique financial circumstances.
With a debt management plan, your credit counselor evaluates what you’re able to afford and negotiates with your creditors for lower monthly payments, lower interest, and/or waived fees and penalties. You make monthly payments to the credit counseling agency, which pays your creditors per the terms of the agreement.
The bottom line
Debt settlement is a viable alternative to bankruptcy for many people. If you have a clear plan and believe yourself to be a strong negotiator, you can tackle the task on your own. Otherwise, a debt settlement company can save you time, stress and money.
Before committing to a third party, make sure to read consumer reviews and select one with a solid reputation. Be aware of the ramifications of debt settlement for your credit score before you proceed, and weigh the consequences against the money you could save.