Consumers lost a total of $1.9 billion collectively to fraudulent practices in 2019, according to the Federal Trade Commission. Debt consolidation, medical bill payment and other services can offer attractive personal loan options and lure in unsuspecting consumers who then learn that the lender was nothing more than a fraud.
How can you determine whether a loan company is legitimate? Here are common signs of a potential loan scam.
What are personal loan scams?
Loan scams are businesses that prey on consumers who are looking for quick solutions to their financial problems, says Daniel Hill, a CFP and president of Hill Wealth Strategies. They’re typically found online, with no storefront or physical address.
“They’re often illegitimate business fronts that profess to lend money but in actuality, take money from people,” explains Hill. “These sites can be popular and they seek out the consumer with promises of ‘free’ money.”
Summary: 9 ways to spot a personal loan scam
- The lender isn’t interested in your payment history
- The lender isn’t registered in your state
- The lender demands a prepaid credit card
- The lender calls, writes or knocks
- The lender’s website isn’t secure
- The lender has no physical address
- The lender pressures you to act immediately
- The lender guarantees approval
- The lender is not transparent about its fees
9 ways to spot personal loan scams
1. The lender isn’t interested in your payment history
Truly reputable lenders make it clear that they’ll need to look at your credit, sometimes getting reports from all three major credit bureaus (Equifax, TransUnion and Experian). This is important — most lenders need to know whether you have a history of paying bills on time and in full in order to make sure that you’ll be just as diligent about repaying a loan.
Conversely, those who operate loan scams aren’t interested in timely repayment. In fact, they tend to seek high-risk borrowers who are likely to fall behind on loan payments and, as a result, incur their excessively high late fees and penalties.
Of course, there are some reputable lenders that offer bad-credit loans, taking into account more than just your credit score when determining your eligibility. However, these lenders will still typically ask for things like your income, employment information and education before offering you a loan.
2. The lender isn’t registered in your state
The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) requires that lenders and loan brokers register in the states where they conduct business. If a lender you’re interested in does not list any registered states, you could be dealing with a loan scam.
Check the lender’s website to verify the list of states where it legally conducts business. If you cannot find such a list, contact your state attorney general’s office for further verification. You can also contact your state’s Department of Banking or Department of Financial Regulation to confirm whether the company legally operates where you live.
3. The lender demands a prepaid credit card
Some scammers have been known to require that borrowers provide a prepaid debit card, claiming they need it for insurance, collateral or fees. This is a scam. Legitimate financial institutions may charge a fee for your application, appraisal or credit report, but those charges are deducted from your loan.
A prepaid debit card is a sure sign of a personal loan scam. It’s virtually as untraceable as cash, and you won’t be able to report it as stolen if you’ve given it voluntarily to a lender.
4. The lender calls, writes or knocks
Reputable lenders typically advertise in ways you would expect, such as online or through other mass media. If you get a loan offer by phone, through the mail or even through a door-to-door solicitation, be on your guard immediately. According to the FTC, it’s illegal for companies to offer a loan in the U.S. over the phone and ask you to pay before they deliver.
5. The lender’s website isn’t secure
When visiting a lender’s site, what you don’t see can be just as important as what you do see. Always look for:
- A padlock symbol on any pages where you’re asked to provide personal information.
- A URL that begins with “https” instead of “http” (the additional “s” stands for “secure”).
The padlock symbol and the secure address mean that the site is protected from identity thieves who steal personal information and sell it to other criminals.
At best, the lack of these safety measures means that the lender isn’t concerned about the integrity of the site. At worst, it could mean that the lender is leaving your information exposed on purpose as part of a loan scam.
Takeaway: Carefully review the loan websites you visit, looking for indicators that they’re secure. These security measures not only make it more difficult for hackers to steal your information but are an indication that you’re dealing with a reputable business.
6. The lender has no physical address
Every lender you’re interested in should provide a physical location. Even then, you will still want to plug that address into Google Maps. In some cases, businesses running personal loan scams will list addresses that are actually vacant lots.
If you don’t find any sign of a physical address, avoid the lender. Many loan scam operators would rather be untraceable so they can avoid legal consequences.
7. The lender pressures you to act immediately
Don’t fall for the urgency plea. One of the hallmarks of loan personal scams is giving you an immediate deadline to sign on for a loan because the offer expires quickly — possibly even the next day.
Lenders that use such high-pressure tactics could be up to no good. It may be a ploy to get you to make a rash decision.
Takeaway: You should never be pressured into proceeding with a loan. Legitimate lenders may impose deadlines for accepting a loan offer, but you will likely have weeks, not days, to decide whether or not to accept the loan.
8. The lender guarantees approval
There are no guarantees when it comes to personal loan application approval — any company that suggests otherwise should cause you to think twice.
“Tell-tale indicators of loan scams include wording that ‘guarantees’ loan approval,” says Hill. “These scams promise people that they’ll be guaranteed approval despite their income, credit history, debt or credit score. These promises are often absurd and sound too good to be true. If it includes ‘guaranteed’ in any of the language, it’s a good sign it’s a scam.”
Takeaway: Lenders use credit score, income and employment information to determine personal loan approvals on a case-by-case basis. As such, a lender can never guarantee upfront that you will be approved.
9. The lender is not transparent about its fees
Scam lenders will avoid posting their fees prominently on their website or disclosing them when asked. They may also tell you that you’ve been approved for a loan and then demand a fee from you.
Hidden fees that are imposed after loan approval are a red flag. The FTC website suggests that you walk away from any company that follows this practice, particularly if you’re told that the upfront money is for such things as “processing,” “insurance” or “paperwork.”
Takeaway: Legitimate lenders may charge application, credit report or appraisal fees. However, those fees will be clearly disclosed on the lender’s website.
What to do if you think you’ve been scammed
While no one wants to think that they’ve been scammed, it can and does happen. The good news is that there are several steps you can take if you’ve been targeted, beginning with cutting off all communication with the company in question.
“If you think you’ve been scammed, don’t make any further communications with the scammer, even if you are sent hostile or threatening emails,” says Hill.
Here are some additional steps to consider taking:
- Provide documentation of what happened. If you have emails, screenshots or other documentation that will help your case, gather them to present to authorities.
- Contact your local law enforcement. By filling out a police report, you’ll have an official record.
- Contact agencies specializing in oversight. After calling law enforcement, consider contacting your state Attorney General’s office, the FBI, the FTC and the Better Business Bureau. With this information, these agencies can better serve and protect America’s consumers.
- Talk about it with family and friends. As scammers evolve their tactics, it’s important to help others stay informed. “Don’t be ashamed of what happened,” explains Hill. “Share your stories with others. Scammers often rely on the shame and guilt of those they scam and it becomes easier for them to perpetuate their lie. So, if you’ve been scammed, you are now in the position of power to stop them by sharing their tactics.”
Next steps: Shop reputable lenders securely
If you need a personal loan, do your research and compare multiple lenders to make sure you’re getting a good rate from a trusted source. Bankrate’s list of the best personal loans is a good place to start — these companies are reputable and offer competitive rates.
You’ll also want to keep in mind that legitimate lenders have certain key factors in common, such as having a physical address, telephone number and email address available on their websites. They also provide professional customer service and will be interested in your credit history. If you have questions or doubts about a company, it never hurts to search reviews on Google, Yelp and the Better Business Bureau.
- Best Personal Loan Rates
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— Bankrate’s Kelly Anne Smith contributed to the update of this story.