The Federal Reserve announced that it’s keeping interest rates steady following its Apr. 28-29 meeting, leaving the federal funds rate at a range of 0 to 0.25 percent. This follows the Fed’s March decision to implement two emergency rate cuts, including a surprise weekend move in the midst of coronavirus panic that dropped rates a full percentage point.
This decision by the Fed to hold rates steady was widely expected, and it comes while the U.S. is feeling the effects of a broad shutdown that has thrown millions out of work in record numbers. The Fed has said that highly accommodative monetary policy will continue at extraordinary levels until the country no longer requires it.
The central bank has taken other steps to keep interest rates near its target range, too. The Fed has injected hundreds of billions of dollars into the financial system via repurchase agreements (repo), in which banks exchange securities for cash for a preset time period. The Fed has also been buying Treasury bills at a higher rate, which it will hold on its balance sheet. And it’s also announced an unprecedented, unlimited bond-buying program.
In total, the Fed has created 11 different lending facilities to keep money flowing through the economy, and it’s eliminated reserve requirements for banks that hold money at the Fed.
“If there is one lesson the Federal Reserve learned from the financial crisis it is not to wade into the water, but jump in and make a big splash,” says Greg McBride, CFA and Bankrate chief financial analyst. “Bringing interest rates to near zero percent was the start, but the importance of rolling out trillions of dollars in liquidity to keep credit flowing cannot be overstated.”
As the Fed continues to sit tight on rates, here are the biggest winners and losers from its latest decision.
1. CDs and savings accounts
Low interest rates mean that banks will offer low returns on their savings and money market accounts. CDs rates have also seen a decline as the Fed lowered rates in the last few months.
“Returns on savings accounts and CDs are in full-on retreat after the Fed’s two aggressive rate cuts in March,” says McBride. “This downward trend will continue as yields catch up to the Fed. And worse still, any turnaround is well off in the distance.”
CD owners who locked in rates recently will retain those rates for the term of the CD. And those shopping for CDs may be able to still find a relatively attractive deal if they search across the nation’s best rates. Some banks have not dropped rates in proportion to the low Fed funds rate, as they seek to attract customers.
Savings accounts have largely already felt the brunt of lower rates, as most banks quickly ratcheted rates lower following the Fed’s moves in March. Still, there are a handful of banks that are offering substantially better rates than their peers.
Savers looking to maximize their earnings from interest should turn to these online banks, where rates are typically much better than those offered by traditional banks.
While the federal funds rate doesn’t really impact mortgage rates, which depend largely on the 10-year Treasury yield, they’re often moving the same way for similar reasons. But in addition to maintaining low rates, the Fed has also become a huge buyer of mortgage-backed securities, helping to steady that market and reduce mortgage rates.
In 2018, the Fed raised rates on the belief that a stronger economy could handle it, and mortgage rates climbed as well during much of that period. As investors began to anticipate a slower economy, they pushed the yield on the 10-year Treasury lower in 2019 and 2020, and that hit mortgage rates ahead of the Fed’s decreases.
Losers include those who are unable to take advantage of low rates, perhaps because they’re underwater on their house or maybe they’ve locked in a fixed-rate mortgage and today’s rates aren’t quite low enough that it makes sense to refinance. In addition, millions of unemployed are unable to gain a direct mortgage benefit from low rates, because they’re unable to show an income.
Still, rates are well below where they were six months before the Great Recession, when the average 30-year mortgage cost 6.74 percent. So rates remain low by historical standards, and a weakening economy could lower mortgage rates further.
3. Home equity
The cost of a home equity line of credit (HELOC) remains low, since HELOCs adjust relatively quickly to changes in the federal funds rate. HELOCs are typically linked to the prime rate, the interest rate that banks charge their best customers.
“HELOC rates will bottom out as lenders catch up with the Fed’s March rate cuts, but that’ll be the end of the line with the Fed funds rate at the 0 – 0.25 percent mark,” says McBride.
Rates on HELOCs remain low, so those with outstanding balances on their HELOC will continue to have low interest expenses. A low rate is also beneficial for those looking to take out a HELOC, and it can be a good time to comparison shop for the best rate.
If you can’t take advantage of the low rates on your HELOC – for example, some HELOCs let you lock in a fixed rate on a portion of your borrowing – then they don’t benefit you, and you might otherwise be paying less. (Here are the pros and cons of a HELOC.)
4. Stock investors
A huge boon for the stock market is the Fed’s policy of open-ended buying of bonds and willingness to keep rates at near zero for as long as it takes for the economy to recover. Low rates are beneficial for stocks, making them look like a more attractive investment in comparison to rates on bonds and fixed income investments such as CDs.
With the Fed keeping rates low and with unprecedented support for the market, investors are likely to keep a floor under stocks.
5. Credit cards
Many variable-rate credit cards change the rate they charge customers based on the prime rate, which is closely related to the federal funds rate. The Fed’s decision to stand pat means that interest on variable-rate cards is likely to remain flat, too.
“Credit card rates have fallen to a nearly three-year low and continue trickling lower as issuers catch up to the two Fed rate cuts in March,” says McBride. “But the Fed has taken benchmark rates to near zero, so there won’t be room for rates to fall further once the March moves are fully reflected.”
If you have an outstanding balance on your cards, then a low rate is welcome news. However, it’s important to keep the low rates in perspective, because credit card rates are still among the costliest forms of financing for consumers.
Still, persistently low rates could be a welcome opportunity to find a new credit card with a lower rate.
Low rates on credit cards are largely a non-issue if you’re not running a balance.
6. The U.S. federal government
Debtors welcome low interest rates, because they’ll owe lower payments, and there’s no bigger borrower than the U.S federal government. With the national debt rising to $25 trillion, the prospect of low rates remains a spur to refinance outstanding debt at low rates, offering the opportunity to save potentially billions of dollars as it rolls over its debt, and perhaps even to spend more.
Of course, the government has benefited for decades from a secular decline in interest rates. While rates might rise cyclically during an economic boom, they’ve been moving steadily lower long term.
With the market expecting ongoing economic weakness due to the coronavirus and millions of Americans filing for unemployment, the Fed is using every tool available to bolster the economy. Still, even with unprecedented support, rates on financial products may fall further, so it may make sense to make your money moves (such as locking in higher CD rates) while you can still receive relatively higher yields.
- 5 ways the Fed’s interest rate decisions impact you
- Here’s why low inflation has the Fed concerned right now
- Everything you need to know about the Fed’s balance sheet – and how it affects your money