The Bankrate promise
At Bankrate we strive to help you make smarter financial decisions. While we adhere to strict , this post may contain references to products from our partners. Here's an explanation for .
While the exact timeline depends on your lender, you’ll usually start paying your student loans six months after you graduate or drop below half-time enrollment. If you’ve never had loans before, making those payments can be an adjustment.
As you approach graduation day, take stock of how much you owe, how long your grace period lasts and how you’ll need to adjust your monthly budget to accommodate payments.
When do you start repaying student loans?
Most federal student loans require borrowers to begin making payments six months after graduation, drop below half-time enrollment or leave school. This period before you must start paying is called a forbearance or grace period. Parents who took out PLUS loans don’t automatically have this grace period, though they can request one.
When it comes to private student loans, repayment options and plans vary. Most private student loans let you defer payments until you graduate, and many offer grace periods ranging from six to nine months.
In some cases, private student loans offer payment plans that let you make interest-only or flat monthly payments during school. You’ll make partial student loan payments as soon as the loan is disbursed.
With the student loan payment pause provision of the CARES Act, borrowers with federal student loans held by the government haven’t needed to make payments since March 2020. Currently, that moratorium will expire on Dec. 31, 2022. As a result, those borrowers should expect to start making payments again in January 2023.
How do I make my first student loan payment?
To make your first student loan payment, you’ll need to set up an account with your loan servicer or lender. You will receive a billing statement from your servicer before your first payment is due. This statement will tell you the payment amount and the due date, and it may include instructions on how to make the payment.
Most student loan servicers let borrowers make payments online, via a regular check or even over the phone. Many companies also let borrowers set up their student loans for automatic payments. Lenders often offer an 0.25 percent interest rate discount to borrowers who set up autopay.
What if I don’t have a job yet?
If your student loan payments become due and you don’t have a job or any other sources of income, you may be able to apply for temporary relief.
Federal student loans come with deferment and forbearance programs that let borrowers skip monthly payments during times of hardship. You can read about temporary deferment and forbearance options for federal student loans on the Federal Student Aid website.
You can also get relief by setting up your student loans for income-driven repayment. These plans base your monthly payment on your income, and payments can be as low as $0 for those who qualify.
If you have private student loans, you’ll need to speak with your lender. Private lenders may have deferment options for unemployed borrowers, though these are temporary solutions.
If you’re graduating, leaving school or dropping below half-time status, check with your lender or loan servicer to know exactly when and how to start paying student loans. If you haven’t landed a job yet, ask your lender or loan servicer about relief options.
How to start paying off student loans
As you gear up to begin repaying your student loans, several steps can get you on the right path. Consider these strategies to get ahead of your monthly student loan bill.
Find out who your loan servicer is
Your loan servicer is the company you’ll make payments to. If you have federal loans, you can find your loan servicer by visiting your Federal Student Aid account dashboard or the National Student Loan Data System. If you have private loans, you can check your credit reports.
Keep a record of all your loan servicers — you may have several if you’ve taken out multiple loans. You’ll receive regular communication from your servicers about your loan repayment, and you’ll need to make payments to each.
Know your total balance and monthly payment
Before starting repayment, confirm your total loan balance and monthly payment by logging into your Federal Student Aid account or the account you hold with your servicer. You can use a loan calculator to dig deeper into how different repayment timelines will affect your monthly payment and what happens if you make extra payments.
Create a budget
Look for ways to ensure that your monthly student loan payment fits your budget without leaving you strapped to pay other bills. For example, see if you can cut back on discretionary spending to free up more cash for student loan payments.
Set up autopay
Consider setting up your student loans for automatic payments. Doing so can help you lock in any available autopay discounts while helping you avoid missed or late payments.
It’s crucial to start preparing for student loan payments before they’re due to avoid undue pressure on your budget.
Repayment options for student loans
Federal student loans are put on a standard, 10-year repayment plan unless you tell your loan servicer otherwise. With that in mind, you should research other plans to make sure you use the best option for your needs.
Many federal student loan repayment plans will let you repay your loans for up to 25 years, and you can secure a lower monthly payment if you repay over a longer timeline. However, a longer repayment term will cost you more in the long run because your loans accrue interest for a longer period.
As you begin your federal student loan repayment, you may consider looking into:
- Income-driven repayment plans: While income-driven repayment plans will extend your repayment period by 10 or 15 years, they can be a good option for lowering your monthly payments. With these plans, your payments will be set at a percentage of your discretionary income. Any remaining balance will be canceled at the loan term’s end.
- Public Service Loan Forgiveness: With PSLF, borrowers who work full time for eligible public service employers can pay down their loans on an income-driven repayment plan for 10 years before having their remaining balances forgiven.
- Extended repayment plan: The extended repayment plan sets a repayment timeline of 25 years, with payments that can be fixed or graduated. Direct Loan borrowers must have at least $30,000 in Direct Loans to qualify.
- Graduated repayment plan: Borrowers who expect regular salary increases may benefit from the graduated repayment plan, which starts student loan payments low and increases them gradually over time.
Most private lenders offer multiple repayment terms ranging between five and 15 or 20 years. Ask your loan servicers about the options available to you.
Both federal and private borrowers can also consider refinancing to get onto a different repayment track, though this is usually best only for private loans. Refinancing replaces your existing loans with a new one, and it’s one way to get a lower interest rate or different repayment period.
Ultimately, finding the right payment plan for your student loans will make getting on track with payments considerably easier. Research your repayment options early in the process, and don’t settle until you find a plan that suits your needs and your budget.
If you have federal student loans, you can choose from several repayment options — consider each and determine which offers the best approach for both your current needs and long-term goals. With private loans, options are more limited, but you may be able to refinance for more flexibility.
The bottom line
As you learn how to start paying off student loans, make a plan for how you want to tackle your student debt based on your financial situation and your other financial goals. As you grow in your career, regularly evaluate your approach and make adjustments as necessary.