What is the Federal Reserve? A guide to the world’s most powerful central bank
The banks’ bank. The lender of last resort. The orchestrator of the U.S. economy. These words are often used to describe the central bank of the U.S., more officially known as the Federal Reserve System.
Investors and economists alike obsess over every word and sentence that comes out of the Fed, whether they’re from public speeches or statements issued after meetings by its policymaking arm, the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC).
But even though the Fed’s work seems so complicated that only financial experts should care, the Fed’s decisions impact your wallet and can influence your financial decisions, arguably more so than any other policymaker in Washington, D.C.
“The decisions that the Fed makes ultimately impact the interest rates that are relevant for everything that we do,” says Eric Sims, economics professor at the University of Notre Dame.
Here’s everything you need to know about the Fed, including what it does and the purpose it serves.
Federal Reserve 101:
1. What is the Federal Reserve?
Where laws are left up to the three branches of government, the broader economy and financial system is steered by the central bank. In the U.S., that central bank is the Federal Reserve, frequently dubbed “the Fed” for short. (Other countries, such as India, the United Kingdom and Japan, have their own iterations of the Fed).
After a panic stoked a lack of trust and confidence in the banks, Congress created the current version of the Fed (there have been two others) in 1913, tasking it with maintaining “a safer, more flexible and more stable monetary and financial system.”
The broader Fed system has three pillars: the board of governors, the 12 regional reserve banks and the FOMC.
Board of governors
The board of governors in Washington, D.C., supervises the entire Fed system. The seven “governors” – one of which is the Fed chair, currently Jerome Powell – are appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate.
On top of that, the board houses about 1,850 other employees, who all conduct research on broader macroeconomic issues to help inform policymakers.
Regional reserve banks
The 12 regional reserve banks, on the other hand, are scattered throughout the country. Each has its own president and board of directors, who stay informed on their regional economies and report those findings back to the board.
Congress created these regional banks to ensure that the Fed was a “decentralized” central bank, meaning it didn’t just concern itself with what was happening on Wall Street or Capitol Hill.
These two components combine to make the FOMC, the third tier and perhaps the most influential aspect of the Fed.
At nearly eight meetings a year (sometimes more, depending on how the economy fares), all seven governors and five of the 12 reserve bank presidents vote to decide whether to raise or lower interest rates and conduct monetary policy.
2. What does the Federal Reserve do?
The Fed’s interest rate decisions are what capture the most attention. During FOMC meetings, officials have three options: They can either raise interest rates, lower them or maintain them.
Think of the U.S. economy as having a speed limit. If it moves too fast, it risks overheating or crashing. The Fed will thus pull on the brakes by raising interest rates. That move makes borrowing costs more expensive and essentially encourages more Americans and businesses to delay their purchases, slowing the economy down.
On the contrary, when the U.S. economy faces a recession, the Fed will cut rates to prop it up. That prompts many consumers and firms to make those big-ticket purchases, cycling back into the economy and acting as a stimulus for growth.
The Fed has also occasionally lowered interest rates when storm clouds are on the horizon, in an attempt to shore up an economic expansion. The Fed in 2019, for example, reduced rates at three straight meetings amid slowing global growth and the U.S.-China trade war.
The Fed can also implement a series of emergency lending facility facilities in times of severe economic distress. Such has been the case during the 2008 financial crisis, as well as the coronavirus pandemic. The Fed created a catalog of different emergency lending facilities to help contain the economic fallout caused by the spread of the pathogen and ensure that credit flows freely throughout the economy.
Of course, the Fed has other duties, many of which came in the aftermath of the financial crisis. U.S. central bankers regulate and oversee big banks in the U.S. and maintain the nation’s payment system, through operations such as the discount window or its internal check clearinghouse.
The Fed also has a hand at maintaining financial stability during times of distress. After the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks, for example, then Fed Chair Alan Greenspan made a swift announcement that the Fed’s discount window was open, hoping to quell panic.
“While politicians often take credit or get blame for the performance of the economy and the job market, it is the Federal Reserve that is more directly responsible,” says Greg McBride, CFA, Bankrate chief financial analyst. “If the Fed raises interest rates too fast or too far, for example, an economic slowdown or a broad contraction could result. Similarly, by cutting interest rates they can give the economy a needed boost by making it cheaper for consumers and businesses to borrow.”
3. What does the Fed look at when deciding what to do with interest rates?
But the Fed isn’t arbitrarily adjusting interest rates. U.S. central bankers have a dual mandate: maximum employment and stable prices. In their ideal economy, everyone who wants a job can find one, while inflation isn’t taking off and diminishing the purchasing power of everyday Americans.
That means officials keep a close watch on employment figures, such as the monthly jobs report out of the Department of Labor, as well as price indexes. Officials’ preferred gauge of how prices are adjusting is personal consumption expenditures excluding the volatile food and energy categories. Officials have a specific target of 2 percent, which they defined in 2012. It’s a goldilocks rate – a rate in which inflation isn’t too low nor too high.
But officials keep a close watch on other economic figures that could bring different outcomes for employment and inflation down the road. For example, fixed business investment as reported in gross domestic product — the broadest scorecard of the U.S. economy — could show whether firms are hesitant or enthusiastic about the future. If a business is feeling optimistic, they’ll likely hire more.
Average hourly earnings, on the other hand, is typically a strong indicator for future inflation. If firms are having to pay their labor more, economic theory suggests that they might pass along those increases in the form of higher prices to consumers.
But the process requires a delicate walk across the tightrope. If officials raise interest rates too soon, they could risk slowing the economy down needlessly and keeping more people out of work. If the Fed waits too long, however, inflation could pick up. And just like it’s difficult to stop an airplane that’s already taking off on a runway, it’s hard to curb inflation once it’s already building.
The Fed also sets one uniform policy for the entire country, which is often difficult when some regions of the U.S. are faring better than others.
There’s no right answer whether employment or inflation matters more, Sims says. As a result, many officials favor sacrificing one for the other. Inflation fearers, for example, are frequently referred to as “hawks.” They often dissuade against too loose interest rate policies in an attempt to keep price pressures under control. On the flip side, “doves” want unemployment to be as low as possible for as long as it can. They’re often willing to stomach higher inflation to get there.
“It’s a difficult problem to solve,” Sims says. “You have to balance different sectors of the economy, and some are more sensitive than others. If they’re deemed important to full employment, maybe the Fed is willing to tolerate some inflation to try to stimulate those sectors.”
The Fed’s job is to ultimately maintain low unemployment for as long as possible without triggering inflation, and it uses interest rates to guide the economy toward that outcome. But typically, Fed officials believe there’s a trade-off between both.
“If the labor market is too tight, it generates inflation,” Sims says. “If the labor market is too loose, this is going to generate deflation. Depending on how you weigh what’s going on in the labor market versus what’s happening to inflation, that sort of informs your opinions on how you want to adjust interest rates and what the potential consequences are.”
4. How does the Fed change interest rates?
But when setting interest rates, the U.S. central bank doesn’t go out to various loan servicers and provide a specific rate to use that’s higher or lower rate. Most interest rates you see on consumer products are privately determined.
Those rates, however, are influenced by the Fed’s decisions. The Fed has direct control over a short-term benchmark rate known as the federal funds rate. At the end of each meeting, the FOMC will determine a target range for that benchmark rate that’s ideal for strong economic growth, as well as maximum employment and stable prices.
Currently, that target range is between 0-0.25 percent, back at its lowest levels ever in response to the coronavirus crisis. It’s soared to as high as 19.10 percent, and plunged to near-zero in the aftermath of the Great Recession.
The federal funds rate then filters through to the rest of the economy. But how that works isn’t as complicated as it seems. Similar to how you keep money in accounts at a bank, financial institutions keep reserves in accounts at the Fed. And just as you’re often required to maintain a minimum balance, banks, too, are required to hold a certain level of reserves.
Many banks, however, choose to keep more than is required. To ensure that the fed funds rate is filtered out through the rest of the economy, the Fed pays banks interest on those “excess” reserves. It adjusts that rate in-tandem with adjustments to the federal funds rate.
“If the Fed increases the rate that they’re paying banks to hold reserves, it’s going to reduce the incentive for banks to lend out funds,” Sims says. “If I can earn 4 percent by holding reserves at the Fed, it’s not a good deal to lend it out to you at 4.5 percent, given that you’re a little risky.”
That ultimately raises interest rates in the broader economy because there’s less credit in circulation.
On the flip side, if the Fed wants to incentivize banks to lend out their excess reserves (rather than keeping them at the Fed), the FOMC will lower the interest rate that it pays on them. That increases the amount of available credit in the economy, thus lowering interest rates.
It’s a common misconception that the Fed prints money when it wants to lower interest rates and shreds money when it wants to raise interest rates. While that isn’t true, influencing the amount of credit in an economy has a similar effect to influencing the money supply.
“When the interest rate on reserves falls, this incentivizes banks to create more credit, resulting in an increase in the money supply,” Sims says.
It’s worth noting that, right now, the Fed has completely eliminated reserve requirements in response to the global pandemic. It’s meant to incentivize banks to lend out the capital they’ve already built up, another step to ensure that credit continues flowing freely.
These are the more conventional tools that the Fed can use to adjust interest rates. The Fed, however, has a number of unconventional programs, such as quantitative easing. With this process, the Fed can buy longer-term assets, such as Treasuries or mortgage-backed securities, to lower longer-term rates.
5. Who controls the Fed?
But the Fed doesn’t have to seek presidential or congressional approval when deciding what to do with interest rates. Instead, it’s given complete authority. The idea is, if the president has control over the Fed’s decisions, it will likely only approve a policy that supports a political interest, rather than what’s best for the broader economy. (Presidents, for example, have historically preferred low interest rates to keep the economy booming).
That’s not to say, however, that the Fed doesn’t have oversight. The Fed is audited every year by an independent accounting firm, as well as the Government Accountability Office. Results are then published on the board’s website nearly three months later, in March of the following year. In addition, Congress acts as its overseer, with Fed Chair Jerome Powell having to report to Capitol Hill twice a year on how monetary policy is progressing.
6. How does the Federal Reserve impact my finances?
The Fed’s work is so complicated that it often gets misunderstood – or outright ignored. But it isn’t something to pass up.
You’ll feel all of these decisions in your wallet. When the Fed lowers interest rates, it reduces yields on consumer products, such as savings accounts and certificates of deposits. Auto loan and credit card rates also tend to fall in line with Fed cuts, though in many cases, they still hold above the fed funds rate. Mortgage rates aren’t directly impacted by Fed decisions, but they’re influenced by the same external market factors that guide the Fed. Vice versa, those rates and yields rise when the Fed hikes rates.
Not to mention, inflation has enormous implications for everyday Americans. If inflation picks up, households lose their purchasing power. And if it falls, the dollars in their wallet aren’t worth as much as they used to be.
“If you want to get a loan, the interest rate you pay on the loan is influenced by what the Fed is up to,” Sims says. “If you are a senior citizen living on fixed income payments, you care a lot about what’s happening to prices in the economy. If you’re a creditor of someone who’s borrowing or if you’re a borrower, you care about what the Fed is doing. [The Fed] directly influences the decisions you make.”
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