How long is a check good for?
Banks don’t have to accept checks that are more than 6 months (180 days) old. That’s according to the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC), a set of laws governing commercial exchanges, including checks. However, banks can still choose to accept your check.
Sometimes banks will still process an old check as long as the institution believes the funds are good. A Federal Reserve regulation says a bank does not have to deposit a check if it has reason to doubt that it will be able to collect the money from the paying bank.
The rules are a bit different for certified checks, U.S. Treasury checks and money orders.
How long is a certified check good for?
The UCC guidelines that allow banks to deny checks after six months do not apply to certified checks. However, a certified check that sits for too long may be subject to state abandoned property laws.
How long is a check issued by the U.S. Treasury good for?
Checks issued by the U.S. Treasury (such as federal tax refund checks) are void one year after the issue date. You must contact the IRS for a reissue if you find an old refund check sitting in the back of your desk drawer.
How long is a money order good for?
Money orders don’t expire, but cashing in a money order late might cost you. The company that issued the money order could charge a non-refundable fee that’s taken from the check amount if you don’t cash the money order within one to three years.
Watch out for ‘deposit item returned’ fee
If you try cashing old checks that bounce, you may be responsible for a “deposit item returned” fee. The fee varies from bank to bank.
At Santander Bank, you’ll generally pay $15 per check, while at Wells Fargo and Bank of America, the fee is $12. The fee might even be higher for international checks. Plus, the person who wrote the bounced check might be charged a non-sufficient funds fee from his or her own bank that could be as high as $35.
If the stale check is a nominal amount that doesn’t surpass the returned-check fee and you’re unable to contact the check writer for a new check or to make sure his account is still active, your best bet may be to forfeit the check and call it a learning experience.
You may be able to cash voided checks
The writer of your stale check may have specified “void after 90 days” or something similar on the check when he issued it to you. This doesn’t necessarily mean your bank won’t cash the check after that period, though.
A court decision in the case of Aliaga Medical Center, S.C. v. Harris Bank N.A. ruled that banks can retrieve funds after the issuer’s requested void period unless that person specifically instructed his bank not to honor the check after that time frame.
Still, if the check was a gift from a relative who’s living on a fixed income, you might be better off honoring her request. You could end up responsible for the deposit item return fee if the reason she wrote the notice was because the funds would no longer be available after those 90 days.
Give the check writer a heads-up
Someone who wrote a personal check is probably not prepared for the hit his checking account balance will take if you cash it months later.
Call or text the person to let him know your intent, especially if the check was issued by a friend or family member. Also, double-check that he hasn’t switched financial institutions or opened a new account before you head to your bank.
Depending on how old the check is, you may want to ask if the person will write you a new check altogether. Despite the awkwardness of revealing your check-cashing mistake, asking for an up-to-date check can save you time at the teller’s desk and keep you from paying pesky bank fees if the check is returned.