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What is an automated valuation model, or AVM?

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Luis Alvarez/Getty Images
Woman using laptop on couch
Luis Alvarez/Getty Images

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Determining home prices is an inexact science. When you’re ready to sell your home, figuring out its fair market value takes time and experience, with agents often pulling extensive real estate comps to compare the home against other similar ones nearby. And there’s also the appraisal process, by which lenders ensure that the home is worth enough to secure the mortgage loan being offered. It’s no wonder sellers often turn to the online pricing models known as automated valuation models, or AVMs, for a quick estimate of how much their home is worth.

What is an automated valuation model (AVM)?

An automated valuation model is a computer program that uses an algorithm to determine the value of a property. If you want a ballpark figure for how much your house is worth, you can easily get an idea by typing in the address on these sites.

But there are many different AVMs out there, each designed and offered by a different real estate or financial company — and you’re likely to get a different number with each one. One of the most popular examples is Zillow’s Zestimate, a dollar figure that’s displayed on each property listed on its website. Realtor.com, banks like Chase and big brokerages like RE/MAX offer their own versions as well.

AVMs consider various factors about the home and its location to come up with an approximate value for a property, without a professional appraisal. However, while their approximate values can be useful for buyers, sellers, agents and even lenders, it’s important to keep in mind that they are just that: approximate. In other words, just because a home’s Zestimate is $500,000, it’s no guarantee that the home will actually sell for that much.

How do AVMs work?

AVMs calculate existing data about a home, as well as the area and similar homes in the same area, and use complex mathematical formulas to determine how much the home is worth.

For example, an AVM might consider factors such as:

  • Square footage of the home
  • Size of the overall property
  • Number of bedrooms/bathrooms
  • When the home was built
  • Recent sales of comparable homes
  • Tax assessments
  • Prior sale amounts
  • Neighborhood crime statistics
  • School district ratings
  • Market trends and seasonality

The precise formula and data points used vary: Each AVM algorithm will calculate the worth of a home slightly differently. One might value an additional bedroom slightly higher than another, for example, leading one AVM to value a home at $250,000 while a second estimates the same home at $265,000.

AVMs vs. home appraisals

AVMs and home appraisals both aim to accomplish the same thing: provide an idea of how much a property is worth. However, there are essential differences between the two.

For starters, AVMs are typically free. In addition, they are easy — you just type in your address. And because they rely solely on existing data, anyone can use an AVM to value a home thousands of miles away.

However, AVMs can’t account for more subjective things, such as whether the home is in good repair or the overall vibe of the area. That’s where professional appraisals come in. Appraisals require a professional to physically visit a property and evaluate it in person. They are not free — in fact, appraisal costs can run several hundred dollars or more. Pro appraisers will account for many of the things that an AVM would, like the home’s size and number of bedrooms, but they can also account for subjective things that may influence the home’s value.

AVM pros and cons

Pros

Along with other digital-based real estate tech trends, AVMs have gained in popularity. Their main benefits include:

  • Convenience: You can complete an AVM in just a few minutes, or even less, whereas appraisals require appointments, scheduling and in-person visits.
  • Cost: Some sites might require a small fee to get access to their AVM, but the majority are free. Professional appraisers, on the other hand, cost hundreds of dollars.

Cons

Of course, there are drawbacks when complex decisions are made by a computer rather than an experienced human being. Two big cons of AVMs:

  • Subjectivity: An AVM is objectively evaluating data points, rather than physically seeing and understanding a home like a person would. It may, for example, overvalue a home that’s in poor shape if it cannot account for condition.
  • Accuracy: AVM accuracy can be variable. The more data that’s available, the more accurate their estimations will be, which means they’re most accurate in large, busy markets with lots of real estate sales and purchases.

Bottom line

Automated valuation models are an easy way to get an idea for the value of a home. They are much faster and cheaper than hiring an appraiser, which makes them extremely popular. However, keep in mind that AVMs only provide an estimate of a home’s value and are not guaranteed — the final sale price may be higher or lower.

Written by
TJ Porter
Contributing writer
TJ Porter is a contributing writer for Bankrate. TJ writes about a range of subjects, from budgeting tips to bank account reviews.
Edited by
Senior real estate editor