If that's not enough, the IRS is allowing taxpayers a one-time opportunity to spread out the payment of taxes due on a Roth conversion in 2010 over 2011 and 2012.
Taxes are due on a Roth conversion because you get a tax deduction on your initial contributions to most traditional IRAs, so you must pay the taxes due on those initial contributions and any growth in your IRA. Your tax bill on conversion also depends on a number of other factors, including your income, your federal tax bracket and your state tax rate.
Roth IRA conversions don't make sense for everyone, but it's worth investigating to decide whether it makes sense for you.
"The issue comes down to what your tax situation is in the year of conversion versus what it might be in retirement," Sadler says. "It's a hard thing to know for sure, but I would say it makes the most sense for younger taxpayers who will have their income grow over time."
Step 1: Evaluate your IRA and 401(k)
First, you need to get a handle on what assets you've got that are eligible for conversion into a Roth. Generally, any assets that you hold in a traditional IRA, whether they are deductible or nondeductible, are eligible. Nondeductible IRA contributions are not taxed when you make a conversion, although earnings from those contributions are taxed.
7 steps to a Roth IRA conversion
- Evaluate your IRA and 401(k).
- Seek advice if you're unsure.
- Weigh financial and tax factors.
- Calculate the potential tax due.
- Decide when to pay the tax bill.
- Consider when to convert.
- Fill out conversion paperwork.
If you have a 401(k) or 403(b) from a former employer, you can directly convert those assets into a Roth IRA.
The higher the balance in your IRA or IRAs, the higher your tax bill will be if you convert. However, if you invested aggressively in the stock market and your account value is still down from two years ago, you won't owe as much in taxes as you would have if the account total had been higher, says Brent Lindell, a certified trust and financial adviser with Savant Capital Management in Rockford, Ill.
Under IRS rules, you have to consider the entire value of all of your IRAs when converting and figuring taxes on the conversion, if you have nondeductible IRA contributions.
"(In that instance,) even if you don't want to convert the entire balance of all of your IRA accounts, whatever percentage you want to convert has to include assets from all of your IRA accounts," Lindell says.
For example, if you have four traditional IRAs worth $100,000 and those accounts included nondeductible contributions, but you only want to convert $50,000 of those assets (all from one IRA), the IRS won't allow you to convert only the assets that lost money. You have to take assets from all of your IRAs, not just the losing ones.
So if you have four IRAs, you can't convert two and leave the other two alone. You have to take proportionally from each IRA account.
However, you can convert any IRA accounts or make a partial conversion from one or more of them, if your contributions were all tax deductible.