HARP isn't a free ride, however. Borrowers must complete a loan application, submit full documentation, meet other guidelines and pay closing costs, according to Vickee Adams, a spokeswoman for Wells Fargo in Des Moines, Iowa.
"It's a new loan," Adams says, "so it has to go through the underwriting process, meaning that loan refinance fees will apply."
HARP is open only to borrowers whose existing mortgage is owned or guaranteed by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac. That leaves out anyone whose loan is insured by the Federal Housing Administration or guaranteed by the Department of Veterans Affairs or Department of Agriculture. Exotic payment-option adjustable-rate mortgages, or ARMs, stated-income, stated-asset loans and larger jumbo loans are typically excluded.
The borrower must be current on the existing loan and have a good payment history. Fannie Mae allows one 30-day late payment in the prior 12 months. Freddie Mac requires no late payments in the prior 12 months.
When the program was launched, an existing Fannie Mae loan had to be funded prior to March 1, 2009, and an existing Freddie Mac loan had to be funded prior to June 1, 2009. However, a recent program change has matched (aka "conformed") Fannie Mae's date to Freddie Mac's, adding an additional three months of eligibility for those borrowers.
The window is still a stopper for some homeowners, according to Kirk Chivas, chief operating officer of First Commerce Financial in Wixom, Mich., which closed 60 HARP refinances last year.
"I wish they didn't have it (only) through May 2009," he says. "I wish it was a forever thing, or at least up through 2010 May, because home values were still declining."
A second program change is that Freddie Mac has elected to exempt new HARP loans from certain recently announced "price adjustments," or added fees, which lenders usually pass along to the borrower in the form of higher closing costs or a higher interest rate.
New PMI not required
The chief advantage of HARP is that it allows borrowers to refinance with a loan-to-value, or LTV, ratio as high as 125 percent.
Borrowers naturally may wonder whether such loans will require private mortgage insurance, or PMI. The answer isn't simple. In most cases, existing loans that have borrower-paid PMI are eligible, the PMI contract can be transferred to the new loan, and new PMI won't be required. There are some technical exceptions, however, so borrowers should discuss their situation with a loan officer who is familiar with the guidelines. The main exception is that it is difficult or impossible to do a HARP refinance of a loan with lender-paid PMI. Most PMI policies are borrower-paid.
Another significant advantage is that borrowers who have a second loan can exclude that amount from the LTV ratio.