They have been, in a sense, a champion of the interest of the banks.
That is one side.
The other side is that they have had an excessive focus on inflation. Not enough focus on unemployment. And that has meant that they didn't focus on stability. They didn't focus on how we get the financial sector to do more lending, they just focused on inflation. And, of course, inflation could be an important problem and hasn't been for the last 30 years.
And in some sense, focusing on the problem in the past and not focusing on today's problem led to higher unemployment. And this high level of unemployment is now affecting inequality in three ways. First, those who are unemployed are obviously sinking to the bottom. Second, high levels of unemployment put downward pressures on wages. And third, the high level of unemployment means government revenues are lower, and that means fiscal cutbacks, which are particularly painful for those in the middle and the bottom.
How should the financial sector be reformed?
I think the answer is: You begin by saying, "What is the financial sector supposed to do?" It is supposed to be serving the rest of the economy.
It is supposed to allocate capital, manage risk. It is supposed to provide funds to small and medium-sized enterprises. So focus on what it is supposed to do. Then, you look at what it does and you say, "Well, let's curtail the things that they're doing and that will encourage them to do what they should do."
For instance, if we restricted their ability to write these CDS derivatives (credit default swaps) -- from which they make so much money -- if we restricted their ability to engage in gambling like JPMorgan did, that would encourage them go to into sound lending practices.
If we restricted their ability to use anti-competitive practices to make money out of credit cards and by abusive credit card practices; if we restrict them from doing all the bad things they were doing, we will hopefully encourage them go to go back to the core mission of banking and that will make our economy stronger.
How else can the government act to reverse this trend in inequality?
Inequality in the United States has many dimensions; too much money at the top, many people in poverty, the hollowing out of the middle class. And each of these requires its own solution.
We have to have a more progressive tax structure. And what is interesting to realize is that our tax structure not only is unfair, but actually distorts our economy. It lowers growth and increases inequality. If you tax speculation at less than half the rate you tax people who work for a living, what you do is you encourage speculation. You weaken the economy. Speculative activities are activities associated with high levels of inequality. And that way you increase inequality.
We tax in a sense a lot of the rent-seeking activities at a lower rate because they get under the rubric of the capital gains tax. With our lack of progressivity, we are encouraging rent-seeking activities. So much of the money at the top is rent-seeking. When you tax it lower, you actually are encouraging rent-seeking.
So, those are examples of the kinds of things that we could do that would simultaneously make our economy more dynamic, more efficient, grow faster and less unequal.