Pensions are being replaced with what the professionals call defined-contribution plans. Most commonly, these include 401(k)s, 403(b)s and 457s. All are funded primarily by employee contributions, and they may or may not have company matches.
The upshot: It's become more important for employees to plan for and take control of their own retirement.
The good news is that most workers -- 66 percent -- report that at one time or another, either they or their spouses have saved something for retirement. But again, they haven't done enough. Nearly five out of 10 workers of all ages has less than $25,000 in retirement savings and investments. And nearly as many say they'll be able to pay for retirement with an income that's less than 70 percent of their current working income.
"We're great at fooling ourselves," says Dick Bellmer, chairman of the National Association of Professional Financial Administrators, a group for fee-only planners. "We say we can live on $25,000 a year in retirement when we're currently making $100,000."
Magic formulaExperts such as Bellmer recommend individuals plan on spending at least 70 percent of pre-retirement income. But others, such as retirees, place that target much higher. According to the EBRI study, 55 percent of retirees today rely on income that's equivalent to 95 percent or more of their working-day income. Meanwhile, 39 percent of retirees said they found their expenses increased, rather than dropped, after they quit working, according to a recent poll by Fidelity Research Institute.
Haven't a clue how much you need? You're in good company. A majority of workers -- 57 percent -- still haven't done the necessary calculations or planning to find out. And three-quarters of this group admit they can only "guess" how much is enough.
This lack of preparation, coupled with wishful thinking, is alarming plenty of experts, such as Matthew Greenwald, principal of Greenwald & Associates, a market research firm specializing in retirement.
"Yogi Berra once said, 'If you don't know where you're going, you'll wind up somewhere else,' " says Greenwald. "People are putting themselves at deep risk, with deep consequences for themselves and their families by not knowing how much they'll need for a period of time that could last as long as 40 years."
To be sure, crafting a retirement plan is daunting. "It's very hard for people to think long-term in terms of what they'll need. They forget about things like inflation."
But it's not impossible.
Online calculators, such as the one on the Social Security Administration Web site, can help wage earners determine how much their benefits will be and how much they need to save for the retirement of their dreams.
The good news is there's lots of incentive and help to save. Employers are stepping up plans to automatically enroll employees in 401(k)s or other retirement plans. Financial products, such as the so-called lifestyle or age-targeted mutual funds, can make it simpler to choose investments that are designed to meet retirement goals.
At the same time, more companies are offering free financial-planning education and investment guidance to help individuals take charge of their retirement savings.
What is the best thing you can do? Pay attention to your retirement. Make decisions today about how you spend, save and invest that will impact what you have tomorrow.
Finally, don't get so overwhelmed that you do nothing. Sure, retirement planning is vital, but if you let yourself be daunted by numbers and financial lingo you don't understand, you'll do yourself much harm. Instead, start saving now, even if it's a little bit. Stick to it, and be patient.
"One of the biggest mistakes people make is they're so overwhelmed they do nothing. They look at their number and think, 'I can't ever save that,' so they do nothing," says Bellmer. "But it's like that old saying: 'How do you eat an elephant? One bite at a time.'"
Read: "5 steps to figuring out your 'big number'"
Are you worried about having enough money to retire someday? Or, do you have a plan of action?
« Back to the Table of Contents