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The alternative minimum tax, or AMT, is widely unpopular and has been a perennial punching bag whenever tax reform is discussed. President Donald Trump has vowed to kill the AMT, which cost him $31 million on his 2005 tax return.
This parallel tax calculation method has been around since 1969 to ensure that wealthy taxpayers didn't use loopholes to escape paying their fair share of taxes. The original target was 155 filers with the then-exorbitant income of $200,000 who avoided paying any federal taxes.
For many decades the AMT wasn't indexed for inflation, so more and more middle-income taxpayers were subject to the tax. A 2013 law fixed that, so the AMT is now adjusted each year to reflect inflation.
What exactly is the alternative minimum tax?
The alternative minimum tax, commonly referred to as the AMT, has its own set of rates (26 percent and 28 percent) and requires a separate computation that could substantially boost your tax bill.
Basically, it's the difference between your regular tax bill, figured using ordinary income tax rates, and your AMT bill, figured by filling out more IRS paperwork. When there's a difference, you must pay that amount, the AMT, in addition to your regular tax.
Common tax breaks disallowed
The AMT rejects or reduces many common tax breaks used every year by individual taxpayers to lower their IRS bills.
For example, under the AMT:
- You cannot deduct state and local taxes.
- If you are 65 or older, have lots of itemized medical deductions and fall into the AMT, you'll lose some of those write-offs.
- Miscellaneous itemized deductions, which must exceed 2 percent of your adjusted gross income under the regular tax system, are disallowed under the AMT.
- Personal exemptions may be disqualified.
- While mortgage interest on your main and second home is still AMT-deductible, home equity loan interest is restricted. It can't be deducted unless the money is used solely to pay for home improvements.
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- Real estate property taxes also are disallowed as deductions under the AMT.
- Some tax credits that reduce your regular tax liability do not reduce what you owe under the AMT. Once you add back these disallowed credits and run the numbers, you might be subject to a bigger IRS bill if your taxable income exceeds the annual AMT exemption amount for your filing status.
You could owe AMT if taxable income for these tax years exceeds:
|Filing status||2016 tax year||2017 tax year|
|Single or head of household||$53,900||$54,300|
|Married, filling separately||$41,900||$42,250|
|Married, filing jointly||$83,800||$84,500|
Many of the tax breaks not allowed under the AMT system do affect predominantly wealthy individuals or businesses with complicated tax circumstances. These include:
- Incentive stock options.
- Intangible drilling costs.
- Tax-exempt interest from certain private activity bonds.
- Depletion and accelerated depreciation on certain leased personal or real property.
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Do more to pay more
To help sort through the AMT mess, some taxpayers turn to computer software packages, most of which include AMT computation, or hire professional help.
For the past couple of years, the IRS has provided some free AMT calculation assistance. AMT Assistant is an online tool that helps taxpayers determine whether they owe the tax. You just answer a few questions about entries on your draft 1040 and the system does the rest. Based on your entries, the calculator will tell you that either you do not owe the AMT or that you must go further by filling out Form 6251 to find out how much you owe.
But the IRS plans to retire the tool after the close of this filing season. Fewer people need it since it's easy to figure out whether you owe the tax by using tax preparation software, including through the IRS' Free File, which automatically calculates any tax owed.
If you find you must pay the AMT, the extra money you owe is never welcome. But dealing with it now is better than the alternative: letting the IRS discover that you should have paid it. Then you'll owe interest and penalties, too.