Since the Bank of England cut the base interest rate to 0.50% in March 2009, savings rates have been decimated. In 2007, the average savings rate was 5.5%. This year, thanks to the economic reaction to the coronavirus outbreak, rates have fallen to their lowest level ever recorded.
The average rate for an easy access savings account was 0.22% in August, a fall from 0.56% in March while a one year fixed rate account was paying an average of 0.56% in august, from 1.14% at the start of the UK’s lockdown, according to Moneyfacts.
The hunt for real returns has led investors towards other assets like stocks and shares ISAs, which are prone to stock market volatility, buy-to-let property, and even cryptocurrencies with unstable valuations.
Another option is direct lending through an Innovative Finance ISA (IFISA), which connects borrowers and lenders. It offers higher potential returns of 5-8%, but at a higher level of risk compared to more conventional savings products.
Launched in April 2016, IFISAs are linked to peer-to-peer (P2P) lending activities that enable small businesses to access finance, bypassing banks.
IFISAs allow individuals to invest some or all of their annual ISA allowance – £20,000 for 2020/2021 – through P2P lending and receive tax-free interest at a higher rate than cash ISAs and savings accounts.
Higher potential returns are available because P2P lending partially cuts out the “middle man” – the bank – reducing overheads, leaving more profit for investors.
Cash ISAs offer fixed returns, so investors cannot lose money. The first £85,000, like deposits in UK banks or building societies, is protected under the Financial Services Compensation Scheme (FSCS).
The first £50,000 of a stocks and shares ISA is protected if the provider is a member of the FSCS. IFISAs are not protected under FSCS, so if the provider goes bust you could lose your money.
With IFISAs investors lend to individuals and businesses through P2P lending platforms that are regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA). Property loans are permitted but equity-based investing isn’t.
All UK taxpayers over 18 have an annual ISA allowance. You can invest the whole allowance in an IFISA or split it between an IFISA and other types of ISA. You can only invest in one IFISA each year but can invest in different ones in subsequent years.
As with all ISAs, your annual allowance can’t be rolled over to the next tax year, so use it or lose it.
Experts recommend investing in an IFISA as part of a balanced portfolio; they’re riskier assets and not protected by the FSCS, so they should constitute only part of your savings.
Most P2P platforms advertise returns from IFISAs of around 5-8%, but there are variations. Generally, the lower the rate the lower the risk.
You can transfer existing ISA balances from cash ISAs or stocks and shares ISAs into an IFISA. For current tax year transfers, you must transfer the full amount.
You can transfer in any amount from ISAs from previous tax years, without affecting your current year ISA allowance.
To transfer, you must complete a transfer form with the IFISA provider you want to switch to. Remember, don’t withdraw and re-invest as it could affect your ISA allowance.
Investing through an IFISA should involve a medium-term commitment of more than one year, to allow for performance fluctuations and time to build a diversified portfolio.
Diversifying by investing in a range of platforms and asset types over years helps you manage risk and allocate your investment portfolio efficiently.
IFISA provider numbers are growing and most operate within the P2P arena. The biggest UK players are Zopa, Funding Circle, Ratesetter and Lending Crowd.
They generally have a good record on protecting investors’ funds – though in 2017, Ratesetter had to plug a £9m gap for a failed loan-deal and Zopa cut customer return rates after a rise in consumer bad debts.
However, with many new players entering the market without much history, be cautious and study the platform and how it assesses borrowers.
Flexible ISA rules introduced in April 2016 allow cash ISA investors to withdraw and reinvest in the same tax year, penalty-free without affecting their allowance or its tax-free status.
P2P lenders don’t have to offer flexible ISAs – some do, others don’t – so check the terms before investing if you want to withdraw and replace funds in the same tax year.
Most IFISAs don’t charge for using the platform but some charge for certain services, like transferring funds from their tax-free wrapper, so check the small print. Minimum IFISA investments range from £1 to £5,000.
Providers of IFISAs must be fully FCA-authorised, so be sure to check for their FCA credentials before you jump in. If you can’t find a certificate you can also check the FCA register to make sure they’re on it.
In theory, lenders are protected as funds are ring-fenced and can’t be used for anything other than the purpose lent for, limiting potential losses.
However, as more companies join the P2P market and IFISA sub sector not all growth aspects can be predicted. There’s likely to be disruption and casualties as the market shakes out, especially in the current climate of the UK recession, but most providers have contingency funds to protect investors from defaults.
Before investing, establish your aims and attitude towards risk. Are you investing to grow capital, to provide an income or a combination of both? Decide how long to invest for, your investment target and, realistically, how long it will take to reach it.
If you’re approaching retirement, capital preservation is important and investing in an IFISA might not be suitable now.
If you’re younger and have longer to ride the ups and downs of the market, then an IFISA may be a good option – just be aware that you can lose money as well as make it.
You must balance the potential benefits of higher returns against higher investment risk. Some platforms have higher standards than others for investing, managing credit and customer service.
Because the IFISA market is relatively new, it has relatively low barriers to entry. This has benefits and drawbacks: it encourages innovation and means there’s more choice, but there’s also the potential for more dud companies to sneak onto the market. Choosing the right platform to invest through could become difficult.
Also, IFISAs invest in different loan categories so it’s difficult to predict how a loan in an unusual class will perform, especially without prior experience or past performance to analyse.
Another drawback is ‘cash drag’. Your money only earns for you when it’s lent out, so interest and capital repayments need to be re-invested promptly. Some providers re-invest funds automatically.
If you’re interested in IFISAs, start investing a small proportion of your overall funds and test it out at the riskier end of your portfolio and monitor progress, but be cautious because there’s less protection if things go wrong.