The real estate market is already tough enough — when you’re buying, renting or refinancing the mortgage on a home, the last thing you want to worry about is being scammed. Unfortunately, criminals are getting more creative in how they target housing consumers. In 2022, real estate fraud resulted in victim losses of nearly $400 million, according to data from the FBI’s Internet Crime Complaint Center.

Here are five common real estate and mortgage scams to keep on your radar, plus tips to avoid becoming a scammer’s next victim.

1. Escrow wire fraud

Here’s how it works: You get an email, phone call or text from someone purporting to be from a title company or mortgage escrow company with instructions on where to wire your escrow funds. Fraudsters set up fake websites that appear similar to the title firm or lender you’re working with, making it seem like the real deal. Scammers use spoofing tactics to make phone numbers, websites and email addresses appear familiar. But in these cases, one number or letter is often off — an easy thing to miss at first glance, says Melinda Opperman, chief external affairs officer at, a nonprofit credit counseling agency.

If you blindly follow the wire instructions and assume all is well, you may find that you’ve just become a victim of escrow fraud. The scammers? They’ve withdrawn the funds from an offshore account somewhere and are sailing into the sunset with your hard-earned money. Meanwhile, you have few options for retrieving it.

How to protect yourself

Before you send money to a third party, go back to the original documents you received from your lender and call the phone numbers listed there to verify the wiring instructions you received. Never click on email or text links, or send money online, without verifying wire instructions with a live person on the phone from a number that you’ve called and verified, says Opperman.

“Be wary of any email or text requesting a change to wiring instructions you already have,” says Sarah Frano, vice president of corporate underwriting and fraud risk expert with First American Financial Corporation. “Before sending a wire transfer, always confirm the wiring information you received is from your escrow company by contacting them at an independently verified phone number, and once the information is confirmed, let the recipient know that funds are on the way so they can confirm receipt.”

2. Loan flipping and predatory lenders

Loan flipping is when a predatory lender persuades a homeowner to refinance their mortgage repeatedly, often borrowing more money each time. Opperman explains that the scammer charges high fees and points with each transaction, and homeowners get stuck with higher loan payments they can’t afford after being duped into borrowing most of their home’s equity.

Seniors with memory impairment are especially vulnerable to these types of scams, Opperman says, because they often have significant home equity and might not realize they’re being taken advantage of. Predatory lenders convince homeowners they can help them find a better loan product or use a cash-out refinance to pay for home renovations to make their homes more accessible as they age.

How to protect yourself

Elderly homeowners who have cognitive issues should involve a trusted relative or friend in any key financial discussion, especially about decisions related to their mortgage. If you’ve recently completed a mortgage refinance, it’s usually not in your best interest to do another transaction right away, Opperman says.

If predatory lenders are actively seeking you out even though you haven’t requested help, that’s another warning sign that something is off. Work only with known banks or lenders, and question all fees and penalties presented to you, Opperman says. Lenders are required to provide loan estimates and closing disclosures that list all fees and third-party costs. Review these documents carefully, or have a trusted advisor do so, if you’re refinancing your mortgage.

3. Foreclosure relief

Homeowners who fall on hard times and get behind on their mortgage payments can become desperate to save their homes. That’s when unscrupulous scammers, using public records of homes in preforeclosure, swoop in with offers of foreclosure relief to capitalize on the victims’ vulnerability, Opperman says.

“Scammers will claim that they can help homeowners save their homes and reduce their mortgage payments for a large, upfront fee,” Opperman says, “but they often leave our clients in worse financial shape.”

Some fraudsters claim they’re affiliated with the government or government housing-assistance programs. They can swindle homeowners out of hundreds or even thousands of dollars in fees, according to the Federal Trade Commission (FTC).

In the wake of financial challenges caused by the pandemic, foreclosure relief scams are on the rise. While the government has worked to address these issues, and many banks have taken additional steps to help distressed borrowers, criminals can still capitalize on fear. This might include offering to negotiate with your lender for a fee, or asking you to pay them directly while they work to sort out your situation.

How to protect yourself

The best way to avoid foreclosure is to work directly with your loan servicer to modify your existing loan, request forbearance or make some other arrangement. Homeowners can first enlist the help of a HUD-accredited housing counselor to see what options they have, then include their counselor on a three-way call to their lender to find solutions, Opperman says.

“A scammer will tell you not to talk to your lender, and that’s a huge red flag,” Opperman says. “It’s hard to speak to your lender when you’re in imminent default or become delinquent, because you’re afraid it might speed up losing your home, but you have to open the lines of communication.”

4. Fake listings and rental scams

Scammers frequently post property rental ads on Craigslist or social media to lure in unsuspecting renters, sometimes using fake photos or images from other listings. The scammers, who have no connection to the property or its owner, will ask for an upfront payment to let you see the property or hold it as a deposit. In reality, they’re just looking to get quick cash through nefarious means — and they often succeed.

Rental scams are alarmingly common. In fact, the problem is so prevalent that there’s a section of the FTC website dedicated to rental-listing fraud, and the FBI issued a warning about a spike in scams targeting bargain-hunting rental shoppers in July 2023.

How to protect yourself

The FTC recommends that renters educate themselves about potential scams when looking for a new place. It also urges renters to do their research and get all terms and details of their transaction in writing.

As a general rule, be suspicious of anyone who asks for a cash deposit upfront to see a property, says agent Nicole Durosko of Warburg Realty in New York City. Ensure you’re dealing with the real property owner before negotiating rental terms or seeing a property in person. Try searching the local property appraiser’s website to find out who the current property owner is and look for contact information online. “Avoid doing transactions via email or on the phone,” Durosko says. “It’s best to be face-to-face to confirm the property ownership, sign any required documentation and make a payment.”

Use a check, never cash, to make any payment so you have an automatic receipt of it, Durosko advises. Finally, always insist on speaking with the property owner before signing a contract or making a payment if someone says they’re representing the owner. If someone claims to be a real estate agent, ask to see their license and take a picture of it so you can confirm the information online through your state’s division of real estate licensing, Durosko says.

5. Bait-and-switch movers

Once you find a new place to call home, you have to get all your stuff there. That’s where moving scams come into play.

Say you fill out a form for a moving company estimate, outlining all your belongings, and you receive an estimate for $4,000. But when the company shows up, they tell you it’s actually going to be $10,000. Or maybe the company showed up and packed up your stuff, then informed you the total would be much more than they quoted initially, essentially holding your belongings for ransom. Or maybe they just took your deposit and didn’t even bother to show up at all.

Unfortunately, this kind of thing happens all the time: More than 15,000 complaints about moving companies were filed with the Better Business Bureau (BBB) in 2022. The wave of moving scams is so bad that two leading companies — Mayflower and United Van Lines — sponsor MoveRescue, an effort to help protect those who are moving and provide help to those who have been scammed.

How to protect yourself

Moving is expensive, and it can be tempting to simply go with the most affordable estimate. However, this is not something to shop for solely based on price. Ask the moving company for their license number, and see if any complaints have been lodged with the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (a division of the U.S. Department of Transportation).

Check them out with the BBB, too. The BBB also recommends getting three in-person or virtual quotes from different companies; if a company gives you a quote over the phone, it says, that’s a red flag. Lastly, avoid giving any large chunk of money in advance. While a small deposit is normal to reserve the movers, reputable companies will not require full payment until the job is actually completed.

How to report real estate scams

Many real estate and rental scam victims are too embarrassed to file complaints, making it harder to catch the scammers who repeatedly victimize unwitting homeowners, homebuyers and renters, Opperman says. If you believe you’re being targeted, or already have been, it’s important to take steps to notify the proper authorities:

  • The best place to start is with the FTC. When you file a report with the agency online, it’s entered into a database that reaches local, state and federal law enforcement agencies.
  • You can also file a complaint with the BBB’s Scam Tracker, which will help notify others about potential fraud activities.
  • For a better chance at connecting with an individual to hear your story, consider contacting your state’s consumer protection agency as well.
  • If you have already fallen victim to a scam, you will likely need to do more than simply file a complaint — particularly if you’ve handed over any private information. is the government’s online portal for anyone who is worried that a criminal is acting in their name.