Before the coronavirus recession, Utah’s housing market was on fire. Then came the COVID-19 pandemic, which sent residents of Northern California and Seattle in search of affordable homes and more space, and an already-hot market grew hotter.

Dave Robison, past president of the Utah Association of Realtors, sums up the activity simply. “It’s insane,” says Robison, a real estate broker in Salt Lake City.

His assessment isn’t just salesmanship. Utah home prices have been soaring as Californians stream into the state. Utah boasts the nation’s strongest pace of job growth, along with rock-bottom unemployment, few mortgage delinquencies and low state and local taxes.

All those factors pushed Utah into first place in Bankrate’s Housing Heat Index when it debuted in 2020. Utah continues to hold the top spot for the first quarter of 2022. Residential real estate has boomed during the coronavirus recession, and Utah has emerged as a particularly desirable market.

Other states in the Mountain time zone also are thriving. Montana, Arizona and Nevada rank second, fourth and eighth, respectively, in Bankrate’s index.

At the opposite end of the list is Louisiana, where price appreciation is among the slowest in the nation and mortgage delinquencies are among the highest. Hawaii — a state that was hit hard by the COVID-19 pandemic — climbed from the bottom of Bankrate’s ranking. It rose from dead last in the first-quarter ranking to 12th in the index based on winter economic data.

The 5 states with the hottest housing economies

The Housing Heat Index shows how states’ real estate markets are faring in the coronavirus-fueled housing boom, and how they might perform in the future. To calculate the ranking, Bankrate analyzed six data points: annual home price appreciation, share of mortgages past due, unemployment, annual job growth, statewide cost of living index and state-by-state tax burdens.

These five states had the strongest housing economies in the first quarter of 2022:

  1. Utah. Its home values jumped 26.8 percent in the 12-month period that ended March 31, third-best among U.S. states, according to the Federal Housing Finance Agency. Utah posted the lowest unemployment rate in the nation in March 2022, according to a Bankrate analysis of Labor Department data. What’s more, Utah’s tax burden is among the lowest in the nation, according to the Tax Foundation.
  2. Montana. Home values climbed 25 percent, and Montana posted top-five finishes in past-due mortgages, job growth and tax burden.
  3. Florida. The Sunshine State’s home values jumped 30 percent, job growth is strong and taxes are low.
  4. Arizona. Home values surged 28 percent, best in the nation, and few homeowners have fallen behind on their loans.
  5. Tennessee. Home values are up 26 percent, job growth is strong and cost of living is moderate.

Homebuyers seek affordability, space

The prominent rankings of states in the Mountain time zone illustrate a shift in the housing market: Americans are still drawn to healthy labor markets, but even before the coronavirus pandemic, they were growing less willing to pay up to live in places like San Jose, Seattle and Boston.

COVID-19 has pushed many — especially those who can work remotely — to leave the priciest areas for more affordable regions.

“We are seeing the makings of a renewed affordability migration,” says Mark Vitner, senior economist at Wells Fargo. “The beneficiaries of that shift have largely been the midsized metros in the mountain states of the West.”

The median price of a single-family home sold in Silicon Valley during the first quarter was a whopping $1.88 million, according to the National Association of Realtors. The typical price in Salt Lake City was $556,900 — above the national median, but not dramatically so, and just a fraction of the price paid by residents of Northern California.

The price gap has spurred many in high-cost markets to consider moving. The notion is especially appealing to workers who can take their high-wage jobs to areas with lower costs of living.

“People suddenly have the ability to choose where they live, because they’re not tethered to an office,” says Alicia Holdaway, an agent at Summit Sotheby’s International Realty in Draper, Utah, and past president of the Salt Lake City Board of Realtors. “We’ve had a net in-migration that’s been happening for years, and that’s only increased.”

Every boom brings its disadvantages, of course. In some cases, new arrivals to Utah’s housing market are flush with cash and willing to bid up prices.

“There’s always a flip side,” Holdaway says. “We’ve been seeing housing affordability become a crisis.”

The 5 states with the coolest housing economies

As a nationwide housing boom rages, every state saw property values increase during the 12 months that ended in September. However, some state economies are struggling with weak job growth and other challenges. The bottom five on our index:

  • 47. Connecticut. This state posted poor showings across the board.
  • 48. Washington, D.C. The district’s score was brought down by weak appreciation, high unemployment and a hefty tax burden.
  • 49. Alaska. Tepid job growth and high unemployment weighed down the northernmost state.
  • 50. Maryland. The state posted comparatively weak appreciation of 11 percent, along with a high level of past-due loans and a sputtering job market.
  • 51. Louisiana. It ranks worst in past-due loans, with 6.8 percent of homeowners behind on their mortgage payments. Louisiana also fares poorly on price appreciation, job growth and tax burden.

Methodology

To calculate the Housing Heat Index for the first quarter of 2022, Bankrate analyzed six data points:

  • Annual home price appreciation for the first quarter as reported by the Federal Housing Finance Agency’s Home Price Index;
  • Share of mortgages past due for the first quarter as reported by the Mortgage Bankers Association;
  • Unemployment rate for March from the U.S. Labor Department;
  • Annual job growth as of March from the U.S. Labor Department;
  • The cost of living index for 2021 from the Center for Regional Economic Competitiveness;
  • State-by-state tax burdens for the 2020-21 fiscal year as reported by the Tax Foundation.

The index overweights home price appreciation, the metric that most clearly conveys a housing market’s desirability. And the index underweights cost of living and tax burden — home prices can soar despite those factors, but a new wave of remote work makes those factors more relevant than they were in the past.

Learn more:

State Housing Heat Index rank Q1 2022 Appreciation rank Past due loans rank March job growth rank March unemployment rank Cost of living rank Tax rank
Alabama 32 18 48 48 13 8 41
Alaska 49 49 19 51 48 47 3
Arizona 4 2 7 21 20 26 24
Arkansas 26 19 44 35 16 3 45
California 17 16 5 2 46 49 49
Colorado 10 14 8 12 28 35 21
Connecticut 47 42 37 31 42 44 47
Delaware 46 44 34 47 41 34 13
District of Columbia 48 51 26 13 51 51 46
Florida 3 1 30 6 18 25 4
Georgia 13 11 41 9 16 10 31
Hawaii 12 9 9 3 32 50 38
Idaho 14 5 49 27 9 19 20
Illinois 42 45 35 16 45 21 36
Indiana 18 31 39 22 3 12 9
Iowa 41 47 16 44 20 16 40
Kansas 33 29 31 50 5 17 35
Kentucky 31 25 33 39 31 7 19
Louisiana 51 48 51 38 34 15 42
Maine 22 12 28 29 26 39 29
Maryland 50 43 43 28 42 45 44
Massachusetts 35 38 17 8 38 48 34
Michigan 23 30 25 15 39 4 14
Minnesota 37 46 10 40 5 29 46
Mississippi 38 26 50 37 34 1 32
Missouri 24 28 29 33 26 2 12
Montana 2 6 6 24 4 31 5
Nebraska 27 39 15 41 1 24 28
Nevada 8 7 13 1 48 37 7
New Hampshire 6 15 12 19 5 41 6
New Jersey 39 35 38 7 34 43 50
New Mexico 34 36 27 4 50 23 23
New York 45 41 45 11 42 36 48
North Carolina 7 8 21 17 25 13 10
North Dakota 36 50 14 30 13 33 17
Ohio 40 32 32 45 32 6 39
Oklahoma 29 23 46 42 9 9 30
Oregon 15 22 2 14 30 40 15
Pennsylvania 44 40 40 26 46 27 27
Rhode Island 30 27 24 23 22 46 37
South Carolina 20 10 36 36 22 18 33
South Dakota 11 20 3 46 5 20 2
Tennessee 5 4 23 18 18 5 18
Texas 16 17 42 5 39 14 11
Utah 1 3 4 20 1 30 8
Vermont 21 21 22 25 9 42 43
Virginia 28 34 18 34 15 28 26
Washington 8 13 1 10 34 38 16
West Virginia 43 37 47 49 28 11 22
Wisconsin 25 33 11 43 12 22 25
Wyoming 19 24 20 32 22 32 1