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Face it: Health insurance is now a requirement for most Americans, under the Affordable Care Act, which you may know as Obamacare. If you’re uninsured, you could owe a new tax penalty under the law’s “individual mandate.” The penalty is assessed against both adults and children. Some groups are exempt from the penalty, including the uninsured who are too poor to file taxes and those whose old health insurance policies were canceled because of the Obamacare law.