More child-related tax savings come from the personal exemptions you claim on your return. Each dependent is an exemption. The Internal Revenue Service sets an annually adjusted amount (it's $3,800 on 2012 taxes) that you multiply by the number of your exemptions and subtract from your income.
Determining whether your child is a dependent is not a problem when you have young kids at home. But what about when they earn their money from an after-school job or are off at college? While you may have to do a little figuring, especially to see if your young worker needs to file his or her own tax return, this generally won't invalidate your child's status as your dependent. The key considerations are whether you are the child's primary source of support or if he or she is a full-time student at State U.
Single parents have some other issues to consider. Where a formal divorce decree is involved, be sure you follow the custody rules set out there. They determine who gets to claim the children. When custody is shared, parents must decide who claims the kids.