"Flying in a plane today is certainly much, much safer than it was 30 years ago because of navigational equipment, plane construction, pilot training, weather radar, all of that," Miles says. "Now the exclusion is there for a pilot with very little experience or a very old private pilot, somebody in their 90s, who is flying a plane. A private pilot who is middle-aged and experienced is not going to have trouble getting life insurance."
Exclusions for acts of war and serving in the military began to disappear following the Vietnam War. "You might still find them in a contract today, but it would definitely be the minority," Miles says.
Graham maintains that's a reflection of the changing nature of war and our support for service members today.
"You don't have the catastrophic risks you had in the first or second world war," he says. "And the military is viewed differently today. I think there is a sense of patriotism in some of that thinking."
Likewise, dangerous pastimes tend to be priced today rather than excluded, according to Hester. "It depends on how much you do," he says. "If you're just doing it once a month or something, it's underwritten individually."
But Graham says that could hinge on the state where you live. "Not all states allow you to use exclusion riders for avocations," he says. "Aviation (exclusion) is generally allowed in all states, but avocations like mountain climbing or scuba diving are treated differently."
Exclusion for HIV is extinct
The HIV exclusion, once commonplace, is virtually extinct today.
"In the early 1980s, it was viewed as a pandemic and there was just no way to stop it," says Miles. "Today, HIV status would be looked at like other chronic illnesses a person might have. They might pay more for their life insurance, but they wouldn't be totally excluded from getting coverage."
Just as insurers once felt obligated to exclude these risks from their insured pool, Miles says new risks may prompt new exclusions in the future, whether for potential epidemics such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, or SARS, and bird flu or risky new ventures such as commercial space flight.
"Part of it is just the unknown: We don't really have enough data to really quantify the risk and therefore the cost of that," he says. "An insurance company would say, 'We don't know enough. That seems like a risky activity just on the face of it, so the right thing to do is not to cover it until we get enough data and a comfort level with it to think about what the premium should be.'"