Land-use policies at heart of housing
Smart growth demands
that communities balance concern for the environment, the economy
and social equity. If public policies favor one of these concerns
over the others, society suffers.
Unfortunately, we are seeing a growing trend around
the country that puts social issues, including housing needs, on
a back burner. The result is a growing housing crisis that affects
families across the economic spectrum and places extreme pressures
on low-income to moderate-income families.
Priced out of reach
Housing costs in many of the nation's major metropolitan
areas are soaring. As prices rise, millions of working families
are struggling to afford a home that meets their needs.
Many families are just one small crisis away from
homelessness. More than half of the nation's 7.2 million lowest-income
working families spend more than 50 percent of their income on housing,
according to Harvard's
Joint Center for Housing Studies.
Over the next 10 years, the U.S. population will increase
by about 24 million. New households are being formed at a rate of
about one million per year, and those families need homes.
Policies that restrict the availability of land for
residential development increase the cost of housing beyond the
means of many working families. Yet lost in the ongoing debate over
growth is a clear understanding of the economics of development
and the market forces driving demand for housing.
Land-use restrictions hurt
In many places, planners and local elected officials talk
about meeting the housing needs of all families, but their policies
are focused on slowing growth or maintaining -- even increasing
-- the exclusivity of their communities.
Instead of promoting housing, they adopt policies
that restrict the supply of buildable land and increase the cost
of housing. These policies include large-lot zoning, urban growth
boundaries, creation of massive agricultural reserves and restrictions
on multifamily housing.
Despite all the talk about smart growth, little is
being done to overcome the inertia of existing planning and land-use
What can we do to improve our communities, meet housing
needs and protect the environment? Two key challenges must be overcome.
First, communities must revise outdated land-use regulations.
If a city, town or county does not revise its zoning codes and development
regulations, then no one should be surprised when it does not get
architecturally diverse, pedestrian-friendly, mixed-use communities.
People say they want communities like Shaker Heights,
Ohio, or Alexandria, Va. Well, Shaker Heights was planned and built
about 90 years ago, and George Washington walked the streets of
a thriving Alexandria when he was a young man.
In most places, zoning and development codes simply
don't allow those kinds of communities to be built any longer. If
that's what citizens want, then they'll probably have to alter their
community's zoning and development codes in order to get it.
Second, communities must overcome NIMBY, the "not-in-my-back-yard"
resistance to legitimate development proposals. Often, a local government
will talk about smart growth and policy makers may even adopt smart
growth codes and regulations. But when a developer proposes a smart
growth project, the neighbors say: "No way. We don't want that
kind of development here. We don't want that kind of density in
our back yard."
Smart growth requires courage
If a community puts together a comprehensive plan and a
zoning plan, and says, "We want development here," then
we need leaders who have the political will to say, "This development
is in the best interests of the community."
City officials can't say they're for smart growth,
then back down every time a small group of people complains about
an approved project that meets the vision of the comprehensive plan.
Whatever they do, planners and elected officials must
take into account the needs and desires of consumers. They should
develop policies that enable consumers to have those elements of
home and community and the amenities that are most important to
them, and do so in ways that protect the environment and promote
History repeatedly demonstrates that policies that
disregard the power of the marketplace are doomed to failure.
Policy makers must resist the temptation to impose
top-down solutions to local growth-related challenges. Instead,
they should create policies that allow consumer preferences to guide
their communities to a sustainable vision of smart growth that maximizes
quality of life, economic development and preservation of natural
Embrace our common goals
We all want the same things. We want a nice house that provides
a safe, nurturing environment for our families. We want to protect
natural resources and improve air and water quality. And we want
thriving communities that will stand the test of time.
Our best hope lies in more communication and cooperation
among citizens, local policy makers, home builders and others who
care about the quality of the places where we all live, work and
We can overcome the problems associated with growth
if we recognize common concerns and work together to create great
homes, great neighborhoods and great communities.