Tax credit now for savings made for tomorrow's retirement
Contributors to retirement plans
already know the long-term tax advantages of an IRA or 401(k).
Taxes are deferred, and in some cases never collected, on money put away for
the golden years.
Now, a tax credit will let some savers reap the rewards of their
retirement thrift early.
The retirement savings tax credit (also called the saver's credit)
appears on both the 1040 and 1040A tax returns as a way to reward lower-wage
earners who sock away retirement money.
Since the tax break is a credit instead of a deduction, it's a
better deal. Tax deductions reduce taxable income, but credits come into play
after you calculate how much tax you owe and reduce your Internal Revenue Service
bill dollar-for-dollar. For example, if you owe $500 and you are eligible for
a $250 credit, the check you have to write to Uncle Sam is cut in half.
A filer eligible for the saver's credit could shave as much as
$1,000 off his tax bill. The actual credit amount depends upon your income,
filing status and just how much you put into retirement plans. Basically, the
lower your income, the bigger your credit. The precise credit percentages are:
| Retirement Savings Credit
Single, Widow(er) or Married separate
filer income limits
filer income limits
Head of household filer income limits
Up to $15,000
Up to $30,000
Up to $22,500
$15,001 to $16,250
$30,001 to $32,500
$22,501 to $24,375
$16,251 to $25,000
$32,501 to $50,000
$24,376 to $37,500
$25,001 or more
$50,001 or more
$37,501 or more
As the table shows, the maximum available credit is 50 percent
of contributions for filers in the lower end of the earnings ranges. There is,
however, a limit on the contribution amount you can use to figure the tax break.
Although tax law allows you to put up to $3,000 a year in an IRA
($3,500 if you're age 50 or older), only $2,000 of that will count in figuring
the saver's credit. That makes it worth at most $1,000 for single taxpayers.
Of course, if you're married and both you and your spouse put away at least
two grand toward retirement, your joint return would reflect a $2,000 credit.
What contributions count?
Contributions to traditional and Roth IRAs as well as to employer-sponsored
401(k) plans count toward computing the credit. So does money you
put into a Savings Incentive Match Plan for Employees, or SIMPLE, plan; a 403(b)
annuity; a governmental 457 plan; or a salary reduction Simplified Employee
Pension (SEP). The credit is based on your total contributions to all your eligible
retirement accounts, not for contributions to each. So if you put $2,000 into
a Roth and another $2,000 into your 401(k) at work, you still can only calculate
your credit on the allowable maximum of $2,000.
Enter all your retirement saving amounts on Form
8880, Credit for Qualified Retirement Savings Contributions, and complete
the form to arrive at your exact credit rate and amount. Once you get the dollar
amount, transfer it to line 48 of your 1040 or line 32 if you file the 1040A.
(The credit isn't available for 1040EZ filers, so you may want to consider changing
your choice of returns if you've been putting away retirement cash.)
If your IRA contribution is to a traditional account, you may
be able to get a double tax break. In addition to the saver's credit, look into
whether you're eligible to deduct
your IRA contributions on the front page of your 1040 or 1040A. This tax
break is one of several deductions
available to filers who don't itemize and the IRS says you can claim both
the credit and deduction for your IRA contributions.
The credit also is attractive to workers who are eligible to participate
in a 401(k) plan but who earn just over one of the saver's credit
income limits. By signing up for a company-sponsored account, such workers could
get under the earnings cap while simultaneously boosting the potential credit
amount. Take, for example, a married employee who is the sole earner in her
family and who reports adjusted gross income of $32,000 on her joint tax return.
She's already eligible for a partial credit, but by contributing $2,000 to her
401(k), she will knock her income down enough to take the maximum
Some other restrictions apply
In addition to the income limits, there are a few other restrictions
on who can claim the saver's credit. A taxpayer who is younger than 18, a full-time
student or claimed as a dependent on another's tax return can't take the retirement
The saver's credit is also what the IRS calls nonrefundable. That
means you can use it to reduce your tax bill to zero, but you can't take advantage
of any excess credit amount to get a refund. So if you owe no taxes, the credit
is of no use to you.
Still, even if you can't take full advantage of the credit, it's
not too shabby of a break when you take into account the additional tax savings
you get by contributing to a retirement account in the first place.
Just remember, the key to this credit is participation in retirement
accounts. If you haven't put any cash into your IRA yet, you can contribute
until April 15 and use the total (up to $2,000) to claim the saver's credit
amount on your current tax return. You have that same time cushion to open and
contribute to a SEP IRA if you had self-employed income last year.
As for your 401(k), you're locked into your credit
for the 2003 tax year based on the contributions you made last year. Make sure
the W-2 you got from your company reflects the correct amount of all your pension
contributions so that you can get the maximum credit.
If you're not yet participating in your company plan, you can
improve your future saver's credit potential by signing up as soon as you're
eligible. Then contribute as much as you can afford without doing major cash-flow
damage to your paycheck. It could pay off at tax-filing time.
-- Posted: April 6, 2004